International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</sup></p> <h3><sup>Connecting Researchers Globally</sup></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</sup></p> <h3><sup>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</sup></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</sup></p> en-US (Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD) (Mohd Waseem) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Comparison of Management of Multiple Knee Ligaments Injury: A Clinical Study <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Multiple ligament knee injuries (MLKI) are usually the result of knee dislocations following either high energy motor vehicle accidents or low velocity sport injuries. Hence; we planned the present study to assess and compare two different management protocols for treating patients with multiple knee ligament injuries.</p> <p>Methods: The present study involved comparison of two different methods of management of multiple knee ligament injuries. A total of 20 patients with multiple ligament injured knee were included in the present study. All the patients were broadly divided into two study groups as follows: Group 1: Included patients who were treated with one-stage process .i.e. all ruptured ligaments were repaired or reconstructed at a single stage of operation. Group 2: Included patients who were treated with staged processes .i.e. the entire surgical procedure was carried out in multiple stages Complete follow-up details of all the subjects were obtained. Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score during follow-up was used for assessment of results.</p> <p>Results: Mean age of the subjects of group 1 and group 2 was 39.5 years and 36.4 years respectively. While comparing the sports and knee symptoms of the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score during follow-up, significant results were obtained.<br>Conclusion: Surgical treatment protocol is reliable mode of treatment for treating multiple ligament injury patients.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Vaibhav Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:15:22 +0000 Raloxifene in Reducing the Risk of Postmenopausal Fracture amongst Osteoporotic Subjects <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Hence; we planned the present study to assess the effect of raloxifene in reducing the risk of postmenopausal fracture amongst osteoporotic subjects.</p> <p>Methods: The present study included assessment of effect of raloxifene in reducing the risk of postmenopausal fracture amongst osteoporotic subjects. A total of 120 postmenopausal women were included in the present study. All the subjects were broadly divided into two broad groups with 60 subjects in each group; Group A: Subjects who were given placebo for two years Group B: Subjects who were given raloxifene 60 mg/d for 2 years. Assessment of Risk of Postmenopausal Fracture in all the subjects was done by evaluating the bone mineral density (BMD) at two years follow-up time. All the results were compiled and assessed by SPSS software. Results: Non- significant results were obtained while comparing the adverse effects among subjects of both the study groups. Overall incidence of new vertebral fractures among subjects of group A and group B included 6 and 4 percent respectively. Significant results were obtained while comparing the incidence of new vertebral fractures among subjects of group A and group B respectively. Conclusion: Significant reduction in the risk of fractures occur under the influence of raloxifene in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Vijay Kumar Meena, Gunvanti Meena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:20:25 +0000 Comparative Evaluation of Respiratory Infections among Rural and Urban Child Patients <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Acute respiratory infections are infections of any portion of respiratory tract or any linked structures like pleural cavity, para nasal sinuses and middle ear. It comprises of a new means occurring in any subject who has been symptom free for at least 48 hours and the infections are less than 30 days duration except for that of the middle ear where the duration is less than 14 days. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidence of respiratory tract infections amongst children of rural and urban areas. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The present prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of pediatrics for a period of 4 months. The questionnaire had information regarding the lifestyle and habits of parents. The level of maternal education was taken into consideration.&nbsp; Modified prasad’s classification was used to socially classify the subjects. Chi square test and student t test was used to perform the statistical analysis. Probability value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. <strong>Results:</strong> The present study 320 subjects out of which there were 73 subjects who had acute respiratory infection. There were 47% (n=16) males and 53% (n=18) females between 0-1 years of age. Acute respiratory infection was seen amongst 27 urban children and 46 rural children. There was significant difference between the two. Out of the children living in urban suburbs, there were 7.4% who belonged to social class I, 11.1% belonging to class II, 18.5% belonging to class II, 29.6% to Class IV and 33.3% to class V. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the above study we can conclude that ARI is more common amongst children residing in rural areas.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Kuldeep Singh Rajpoot, Lakhan Poswal, Chakshu Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:34:45 +0000 Assessment of Candidiasis Infections among Patients Visited in Hospital <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. The present study was conducted to assess Candidiasis infections among patients. </em><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The present study was conducted in the department of Microbiology on 114 cases. Clinical examination was done for the diagnosis. Microbiological culture assessment was done in all cases. Swab was taken from the lesion of the patients and was incubated in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium for assessment of culture growth characteristics. All the samples were incubated in the culture medium at 37°C for 1–2 days. Counting of the yeast colonies was done 48 hours after incubation. &nbsp;</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Age group 11-20 years had 12 males and 7 females, 21-30 years had 18 males and 16 females, 31-40 years had 24 males and 15 females and 41-50 years had 10 males and 12 females. Most common type was denture induced candidiasis (DIC) seen in 20 males and 14 females, acute atrophic candidiasis (AAC) seen in 18 males and 15 females, acute pseudomembranous candidiasis (APC) seen in 12 males and 10 females, chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC) in 10 males and 8 females and angular cheilitis in 4 males and 3 females. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Common species was C. albicans (52), C. Krusei (32), C. tropicalis (20) and C. pseudotropicalis (10).</em> <strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection. Most cases were seen in males and most common type identified was Candida Albicans.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Maya Barala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:19:44 +0000 Assessment of Maternal Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Pregnancy Outcome: A Clinical Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Medical conditions like eclampsia, hemorrhage- ante or post-partum have increased the occurrence of maternal deaths.&nbsp; Pre-eclampsia can cause potentially lethal events like abruption of placenta, DIC, hemorrhage, liver failure, kidney failure and cardiovascular failure.&nbsp; Therefore, the present study was aimed to estimate the effect of maternal Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Pregnancy Outcome. </em><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The study consisted of all the pregnant females reporting to the hospital during a duration of 2 years.&nbsp; The females with systolic pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg were regarded as hypertensive and included in the study. All the required hematological and biochemical markers like AST, ALT, hemoglobin, PCV, Uric acid, MCV and red blood cell, prothrombin time and platelet counts were evaluated. A follow up of all the subjects were maintained during the entire pregnancy duration and outcome was noted. All the data obtained was arranged in a tabulated form and analyzed using SPSS software. Student t test was used for analysis and probability value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>The mean age of the subjects was 29.34+/-3.20 years. The mean hemoglobin level amongst subjects who died was 12.55 +/-1.67 and amongst the Live subjects was 13.44 +/-1.82. The mean ALT level amongst subjects who died was 163.76±342.7 and amongst the Live subjects was 45.47±55.23. There was a significant difference between them. The mean AST was 324.68±800.18 amongst dead mothers and 50.43±143.17 amongst live mothers. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>From the above study it can be concluded that biochemical parameters act as valuable predictors of pregnancy outcome. AST, ALT and uric acid levels were significantly different amongst both the groups.</em></p> Anjali Agarwal, Mahavir Prasad Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:26:33 +0000 Prevalence of Parasitic Infection among Children: A Hospital Based Prospective Study in Udaipur <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>According to World Health Organization (WHO) has evaluate that the control of parasitic infestation should be effectively incorporated into a multi disease approach together with tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This study was carried out in the </em><em>Department of Paediatrics, Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Bedla, Udaipur </em><em>over a period of 1 year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>In this study found that 23.75% children suffering from the E. histolytica followed by G. lamblia (12.5%), Taenia (15%), Hookworm (20%), Ascaris (17.5%), T. trichuria (11.25%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>Low socio-economic status, longer duration and frequency of diarrhea, non-availability of toilet facility and presence of dehydration were leading risk factors for parasitic infection in present study.</em></p> Dinesh Rajwaniya, Indira Subhadarshini Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:30:16 +0000 A Study of Aerobic Bacterial Isolates and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Rajasthan <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Aerobic bacteria are the major cause of pyogenic infections characterized by local and systemic inflammation and pus formation. Different studies show that bacterial profile of pus samples and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern shows many variations. Emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance has made the treatment of pyogenic infections difficult. Pus culture and sensitivity testing done prior to start antibiotic therapy help in right approach towards selection of antibiotic and treatment.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>A study was conducted in Department of Microbiology of a private tertiary care hospital in Udaipur, Rajasthan from August 2017 to January 2018. Total of 240 pus samples were analyzed for aerobic culture and sensitivity. Processing and identification was done as per standard guidelines. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed by Kirby Baur disc diffusion method.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>In our study, out of 240 pus samples sent from various departments, 160 (66.6%) were positive for bacterial growth. Commonest isolate was Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Pseudomonas species, E. coli, Klebsiella species, Enterococcus species, either alone or in mixed growth. All Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. For Pseudomonas species, effective drugs were piperacillin-tazobactem and polymyxin B; for enterobacteriacae, most effective drug was meropenem.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>It is of utmost importance for a clinician to send the pus sample for microbiological analysis and antibiotic sensitivity testing before starting antibiotic therapy to minimize the emergence of drug resistance.</em></p> Ritu Bhatnagar, Pragnesh Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:34:12 +0000 To Assess Medication Compliance and Self Care Practices in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>The global rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and a wide variation in compliance to self-management of diabetes has become a challenging health care problem. Poor glycaemic control can lead to treatment failures and accelerated development of various diabetes-related complications. Our study aims to find out the compliance rate of the patients with type 2 diabetes to the prescribed medications and to find out its comparison across various socio-demographic variables. </em><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This is a cross sectional questionnaire based study that was conducted amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 136 patients were included in the study and interviewed by using a pre tested, structured interview schedule which captured socio-demographic variables and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire covering different aspects of diabetes self-management. Participants rate the extent to which each description applies to them on a four-point Likert scale. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Mean age of the participants was 44.53 ± 8.13. The mean duration of diabetes was 7.63 ± 6.49 years. The overall compliance score in our participants was 23.44 ± 4.17. None of the participants stated that they check their blood sugar levels regularly. Of self-care activities, 69.1% of the patients agree that they do not skip their diabetes medication. Compliance to the diabetes self-care decreased significantly with an increase in age (p&lt;0.001) and duration of disease (p&lt;0.01). The mean compliance score was also significantly lower among those who were illiterate (p&lt;0.001) and unskilled workers (p=0.02).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>It can be concluded that the compliance score was not good among the participants. Significant association have been found between mean compliance scores and increasing age, illiteracy, unskilled occupation and longer duration of disease. </em></p> Monica Aggarwal, Sandhya Rani Gautam, Aaditya Yadav, Tariq Khurana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:44:17 +0000 A Prospective Study on Psychological Profile of Male Alcoholic Patients Visiting Psychiatry OPD in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Treatment outcome is very essential. Hence for successful treatment and management of alcohol dependent cases, it is essential to understand their personality. <strong><br>Methods:</strong>Present cross sectional hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Pacific institute of Medical Sciences, Udaipur. Alcohol dependence syndrome and uncomplicated withdrawal state patients only were included in the present study. Age less than 18 and more than 60 years, patients with mental retardation, patients with personality disorders were excluded. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Majority of subjects belongs to upper low socioeconomic status (n=10), middle socioeconomic status (n=6), low socio economic status (n=2) and upper middle socioeconomic status (n=2). </em><em>Maximum number of patients were from rural areas than urban areas. Majority of males in the high-risk level of severity of alcoholism has banging head against something, to the extent that caused a bruise to appear type of behavior. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>Majority alcoholics were from low social classes, were illiterate, were married, unskilled workers. Hence these group people should be paid proper attention to prevent the occurrence of alcoholism among them. </em></p> Arun Khatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:48:30 +0000 Prognostic Value of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as Index of Arterial Stiffness in the General Population <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>During a person’s lifetime, as part of the aging process or as a consequence of hypertension, atherosclerosis, or other pathological processes, the aorta stiffens. Accordingly, the forward pulse wave travels faster, and the arterial waves reflected from the periphery reach the heart early during systole, which leads to higher systolic but lower diastolic blood pressure, an augmentation of the cardiac workload, and a decrease of the coronary perfusion pressure. The aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) reflects central arterial stiffness. Some studies addressed the prognostic significance of APWV above and beyond other cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, pulse pressure, an indirect measure of increased arterial stiffness, predicts a poor prognosis in treated and untreated hypertensive subjects. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The study was conducted on a sex- and age-stratified random sample of 167 rural and suburban population of Haryana state aged 40 to 70 years. </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the prognostic value of APWV, pulse pressure (PP) and other covariates. We adjusted for sex, age, body mass index. MAP measured in the office (conventional PP) and APWV by Periscope TM. With these adjustments, APWV maintained its prognostic significance in relation to each end point (P&lt;0.05), whereas office PP lost their predictive value (P&gt;0.19). In sensitivity analyses, APWV still predicted all cardiovascular events after standardization to a heart rate of 60 beats per minute, after adjustment for MAP. </em><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>In a general population of Haryana, APWV predicted a composite of cardiovascular outcomes above and beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. </em></p> Harsh Nandini, Anil Kumar Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:52:46 +0000 Distribution of ABO and Rh types in Voluntary Blood Donors in a Tertiary Care Center in a Southern District of Rajasthan <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Despite the long list of several other blood groups discovered, the knowledge and distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood group are essential for blood transfusion purposes, population genetic study and healthcare planning. <strong>Aims: </strong>This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Southern Rajasthan and compare it with other data from similar studies within and outside India. The importance of the study lies in maintaining the blood bank inventory so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank, Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Rajsamand, Rajasthan over a period of 2 years from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2017. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Out of 1142 subjects, 1117 (97.81%) were male and 25 (2.19%) were female subjects. 279 (24.43%) donors were voluntary and 863 (75.56%) donors were replacement donors. On studying the ABO blood group system, the most frequent group was B (33.97%) followed by O (31.96%), A (22.06%), and AB (6.91%) in blood donors while in Rh system, 1084 (94.92%) donors were Rh positive and 58 (5.07%) were Rh negative. </em><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services which play an important role in the patient's health care. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services and will also throw light on the reasons of deficiency of a particular group in a particular area so that deficient group donors may be encouraged to donate more frequently. </em></p> Manish Mewani, Shikha Goyal, Pranveer Singh Rao, Princy Shinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 10:57:28 +0000 Role of Topical Phytotherapy on the Risk Factor of Elevated Level of Serum Aldolase-A in Knee-Osteoarthritis: Part II. A Systematic Meta-Analysis <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Knee-osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative joint disease. Elevated level of aldolase-A (AldoA) in serum indicates skeletal muscle damage in KOA. The present study was attempted to normalize the elevated level of AldoA by topical phytotherapeutic protocol correlated with leg-anatomy, body mass index (BMI), pain, stiffness and physical function and the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading-systems.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Baseline data from144 patients (61.80% females) with KOA aged 40-75 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Bilateral anatomy of &nbsp;legs including the gap at the knee between the short head of the biceps femoris and the surface of the bed, diameter of muscles 4cm above and below the patella, angles of straight leg raising, flexion and extension in different positions and BMI were measured using appropriate instruments. AldoA was estimated in serum. The KL grading-system of radiographic KOA and overall pain under VAS and pain, stiffness and physical function under WOMAC index were also evaluated. All the parameters were compared between the baseline and post-42 days of treatment.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>The anatomical features were observed symmetry in both legs at the end of the 42<sup>nd</sup> session with highly statistical significance (P&lt;0.0001). The significant changes were also observed in VAS (P&lt;0.00001), WOMAC index (P&lt;0.001), AldoA level (P&lt;0.0001), BMI (P&lt;0.0001) and improvement of KL grading systems was noted for both knee-joints. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>The functional improvements of skeletal muscles confirmed with normalization of elevated AldoA level, leg-anatomical measurements, BMI, VAS, WOMAC index and KL grading systems of radiographic KOA due to the effects of phytochemicals present in phytoextracts.</em></p> Apurba Ganguly ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:02:22 +0000 Spirometric Changes in Patients of Allergic Rhinitis: A Prospective Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Allergy is a chronic inflammatory disease, which may affect the upper and lower airway in reversible airflow obstruction or asthma. Spirometry is a noninvasive way to assess lower airway function routinely and to detect reversible airflow obstruction. Objective: To find out prevalence of abnormal small airway function in allergic rhinitis patients without diagnosis of asthma</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This prospective study was conducted in the department of Pulmonary Medicine, SRMSIMS, Bareilly. Spirometric measurement of patients of allergic rhinitis</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>One hundred and thirty nine patients of Allergic Rhinitis (AR)were included in&nbsp; this study.73 were males and 66 were females. Farmers and labors outnumbered the students.13/49 (26.53%) farmers and 8/20(40%) labours had decreased FEF25-75%. It was also observed that longer the duration of AR, more patients were having abnormal FEF25-75%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>When patients with AR seek treatment, the lower airway status should always be evaluated. This study provided evidence that an early bronchial impairment might be detectable by&nbsp;</em><em>considering the FEF25-75.</em></p> Chandra Shekhar Purohit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:05:55 +0000 Depression and Routine Biochemical Markers: A Cross Sectional Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Today, globally up to 6–12% of the adult population suffered mental disorder and recurrent depression. The prevalence of depression in India was reported as 4.5% by WHO. Currently the diagnosis of major depression is carried out through symptom-based assessment process, which has limitation of the development of personalised treatment plans. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the association between various biochemical markers of the inflammation, lipid profile, BMI, thyroid profile and depression among the patients attending department of psychiatry in a tertiary care centre. <strong>Methods:</strong></em> <em>A cross-sectional study conducted among 50 patients attending the psychiatry department at S.N. Medical college, Agra and diagnosed as Depression disorder, during April 2012 to December 2012. Hamilton rating scale (HAM-D) was used to assess the severity of depression. The patients were also assessed for their vitals, lipid profile, thyroid profile, ESR, CRP and BMI. <strong>Results:</strong></em> <em>19 (38%) study subjects were in the age group of 18yrs to 30 yrs with mean age as 34.2 </em><em>±14.57 years. 36(72%) were of normal weight or under-weight and14 (28%) were pre-obese. Among 14 pre-obese and obese study subjects, 2(15.4%) had mild, 4(18.2%) had moderate and 8(53.3%) had severe type of depression(p=0.03). ESR is more in severe depression as compared to mild and moderate depression. (p=&lt;0.001%). C-reactive protein is statistically more in severe depression (T =2.25; P= &lt; 0.001). <strong>Conclusions:</strong></em> <em>There is a positive and significant relationship between the severity of depression and ESR, CRP and BMI among the patients attending department of psychiatry.</em></p> Haseeb Khan, Vimlesh Kumar Verma, Dharmendra Uraiya, Anoop Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:11:36 +0000 Comparison of Efficacy and Tolerability of Immediate Release Glucosamine HCL And Glucosamine HCL Sustained Release Formulation in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis; A Randomised Clinical Trial <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of and a leading cause of chronic disability between fourth and fifth decade of life, with a prevalence ranging between 17-60.6% in India. <strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the efficacy and safety profile of glucosamine HCl- sustained release (GLU-SR) with that of Glucosamine HCl- immediate release (GLU-IR) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). <strong>Methods:</strong></em> <em>This was an open labelled, randomised, controlled trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital at Kanpur. The study involved 60 patients with knee OA, randomised to receive single oral dose of 1,500 mg GLU-SR and GLU-IR for 60 days with 30 patients in each group. The primary efficacy being reduction in pain and improvement in function was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. Intention-to-treat principle, repeated measure of ANOVA and mixed model analysis were used for statistical analysis. The history of adverse reactions experienced was collected throughout the study period. <strong>Results:</strong></em> <em>There was a significant reduction in algo functional indices as primary outcome measure in both the groups (P &lt; 0.001). A significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) in the number of patients reporting ADR in the GLU-SR arm (38% lesser) was noted as compared to GLU-IR arm, with no difference in the use of rescue medications in both arms. <strong>Conclusions:</strong></em> <em>From the observations made in this study it is concluded that GLU-SR is as effective as GLU-IR in the management of knee OA; with an advantage of having a better safety profile. </em></p> Nusrat Nabi, Shalini Gupta, Deepak Kumar, Nasir Nabi Naikoo, Himika Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:35:39 +0000 The Prospective Study on Acute Leukemia in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Rajsamand <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Acute leukemia are characterized by clonal expansion of immature myeloid or lymphoid precursors (blasts). The blasts cells are known to replace the normal hematopoietic tissues and to invade other organs of the body as well. Anemia, hemorrhage and infections occurring due to bone marrow failure are the top three complications of acute leukemia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, </em><em>Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Rajsamand</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>In The present study, 32 cases of different patterns of acute leukemia were reported. According to hematological parameters, 25 cases (78.1%), 2 cases (6.25%), 3 cases (28.1%) and 2 cases (6.25%) were reported as acute leukemia, AML, ALL and bi-lineage leukemia respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>The present study showed that AML is more prevalent than ALL. It is observed that ALL is more common in children. The incidence of AML is higher in adults in comparison to children and decreases towards older age.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Sunanda Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:40:03 +0000 A Prospective Study on Bacterial Isolation from Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Department of Surgery <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>There are various wound classification systems to assess the severity of diabetic foot ulcer and involve different factors specifically depth, site, presence of neuropathy, ischemia etc. Wagner’s system classification is the most widely used in grading of diabetic foot ulcers.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The case study was carried out in the </em><em>Department of Surgery, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>173 cases were enrolled in study and grade-3 Wagner’s ulcers were predominant. Males were predominant. Peripheral arterial disease was more common than peripheral neuropathy and both were found significantly associated with development of ulcers. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most common isolates. MRSA exhibited maximum sensitivity to vancomycin, clindamycin and linezolid. Gram negative isolates exhibited maximum sensitivity to meropenems, piperacillin-tazobactam.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>This study conclude that prospective multicenter studies are required to assess the appropriate antibiotic regimen in diabetic foot ulcers and proper management of antibiotics must be started to decrease the incidence and development of MDR organisms.</em></p> Kapil Sharda, Prakash Choudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 13:44:55 +0000 Assessment and Comparison of Microbiological Efficacy of Moxifloxacin plus Vancomycin Combined Therapy with Fortified Vancomycin in Bacterial Conjunctivitis <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Bacterial Conjunctivitis or red eye being highly communicable need to be tackle at the earliest. Newer antibiotics may kill bacteria more rapidly. Thus, we aim to assess and compare microbiological efficacy of Moxifloxacin (0.5%) plus Vancomycin (2.5%) combined therapy to Fortified Vancomycin (5%) in relation to organism isolated in positive culture of bacterial conjunctivitis. </em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present study was conducted on patients who presented at Ophthalmology OPD, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital, Aligarh and Gandhi Eye Hospital, Aligarh. </em><em>The patients with bilateral conjunctivitis were included in the study. Right eyes were instilled moxifloxacin plus vancomycin combination therapy and Left eyes were instilled fortified vancomycin. Microbiological outcomes were recorded on first visit and on follow up visits during course of treatment.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>A total of 35 patients were included in the study. At first visit, 14 cases were positive with coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) being the most common organisms. All the positive smears became negative in first follow-up (3<sup>rd</sup> day) in both the groups. No significant difference was found in microbiological study outcome between the two-study groups.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>We conclude that both the drugs, i.e. moxifloxacin (0.5%) plus vancomycin (2.5%) combined therapy and fortified vancomycin (5%) had good efficiency in microbial elimination in cases of bacterial conjunctivitis with equivalent outcome and can be considered as an alternative to other antimicrobial therapy in bacterial conjunctivitis.</em></p> Ahmad Abdullah, S N Askari, Shamim Ahmad, Yasir Alvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 13:49:46 +0000 Comparison of Conventional Physiotherapy with Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients with Lymph-Edema <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Lymphedema in addition to arm pain and movement restriction following breast cancer surgery is common challenge to physiotherapy. PEMF therapy is proving good adjunct for enhancing fracture healing, reducing inflammation and symptom relief. The same is exempt for benefit in stated problems of post-breast cancer surgery patients.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>60 patients each were sequentially enrolled following informed consent, administering either conventional physiotherapy or combined PEMF therapy with conventional physiotherapy for 3 weeks. The parameters examined were pain score, range of movement and arm circumference for edema.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Physiotherapy benefited pain and range of movement but not lymphedema. PEMF combined therapy significantly reduced lymphedema in addition to other benefits.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>PEMF therapy with reported bioenergetic effects appears to effect reduction of lymphedema as well as pain relief and betterment of joint movements. The study emphasizes need for establishing PEMF as adjunct root in therapy for the kind of patients. This would need larger and wider evaluation.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Anuja Pasari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 13:56:26 +0000 Prevalence of Surgical Site Infections in IPD Department of Surgery: A Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The most common causes of nosocomial infections are surgical site infections (SSIs). It is also reported that SSIs rate ranges from 2.5% to 41.9% worldwide and resulting in high morbidity and mortality.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This study conducted in Department of Surgery, Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Rajsamand. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: In this study, 410 cases were included, out of which 5.6% were infected post-surgery and 94.3% were non- infected. From the 5.6% cases 60.9% had mild infection and 30.4% had moderate infection and 8.7% had severe infection.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: In the present study, the infection rate was higher. This high infection rate was due to the contaminated and dirty procedures where some of the patients were first seen about 2 to 3 days after development of peritonitis. It has been noted that the infection rate was higher in the emergency operative procedures in comparison to the elective procedures. </em></p> Mukesh Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 14:00:40 +0000 Diagnosis of Intramuscular Cysticercosis by High-resolution Ultrasonography: A Prospective Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Cysticercosis is one of the common infectious disease, the extraneural tissues are usually involved synchronously or metachronously with the brain in this disease. Isolated infestation of soft tissue and muscle in the absence of neural involvement is more common than previously known. High resolution ultrasonography has evolved now as an investigation of choice with proven sonological patterns of soft tissue cysticercosis which has reduced the need for invasive interventions.<strong> Methods: </strong>Prospective evaluation of total 9 cases of extraneural cysticercosis over a period of 6 months at Prakash institute of Medical Sciences and Research. HRUSG analysis of 9 cases was done to evaluate and classify the various classic sonomorphological features of isolated cysticercosis involving soft tissue and muscles. FNAC was done only in 3 cases. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Around 9 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 9 cases, 5 were male and 4 were female patients. Three individuals were vegetarian and five were non vegetarian. Mean age was 35 years. All cases were diagnosed on HRUSG. Intramuscular lesion was identified in 7 cases and 2 cases had subcutaneous involvement with anterior abdominal wall in muscular plane as the commonest site in three patients. FNAC was done in 3 cases confirming the cysticercosis and was treated surgically. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. </em></p> Shrivardhan S Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 14:04:07 +0000 Correlation of USG findings and Clinical presentation of Appendix in Appendicitis: A Hospital-Based Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>We have been knowing from our past that appendix is a vestigial organ, useless to man, with no known important function, but sometimes it can cause problems, when it may become the seat of infection. The diagnosis of appendicitis is not very easy, requiring the skills of the most experienced clinician. The objective of this study was to find out and compare accuracy of USG findings with that of per-operative findings of location &amp; status of appendix.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present prospective study was carried out in surgery department at </em><em>Chandulal Chandrakar Memorial Medical College, Kurud Rd, Kachandur, durg, Chhattisgarh</em><em>. A total of 75 cases were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and subjected to ultrasound examination by a qualified radiologist to exclude any other associated pathology and also to confirm the diagnosis. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Out of 30 cases, a total of 14 cases presented with clinical features suggestive of retrocaecal appendicitis, out of which 11 had typical presentation &amp; 3 had atypical presentation with overall sensitivity of 73.25%, followed by pelvic position which had a sensitivity of 16.29% in which 3&nbsp; patients had typical presentation &amp; 2 had atypical presentation. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> <em>A total of five modalities that were used for the diagnosis of position of appendix &amp; appendicitis, i.e. clinical features, lab Ix, ultrasound, intraoperative findings &amp; histopathology, only 47% of cases all the modalities were positive. </em></p> Ajaya Anantrao Khanolkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 14:07:50 +0000 Management of Post Traumatic Facial Nerve Palsy: A Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Facial nerve loss of motion by injury is normal cause after idiopathic. Facial paralysis accordingly of intra cranial, intra fleeting and additional transient limit harm or break and both. Sudden and prompt facial nerve paralysis require early surgical intervention for better result. Facial nerve decompression and termino- terminal anastomosis surgical intervention had done in present study. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A prospective study of the 15 cases of traumatic facial nerve palsy attending Department of Otorhinolaryngology, </em><em>Government Medical College, Shivpuri, MP.</em><em> The complete clinic examination, otoscopic, audio logical, topo diagnostic, and radiological evaluation were done in all the patients. The outcome of these patients were done on the House-Brackmann nerve grading system.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>All patients have infra nuclear type of facial nerve palsy. The maximum incidence of facial nerve paralysis found in the age group between 26 to 35 years. Out of 15 patients ,12 patients were normal hearing. Suprachordal (54%) involvement is the most common site of lesion in traumatic facial nerve paralysis.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Sudden and immediate onset facial nerve paralysis need early surgical intervention for better outcome .facial nerve decompression were better outcome comparing to termino terminal anastmosis. The facial nerve paralysis prognosis depends upon degree of paralysis, duration of paralysis, site of injury and patients’ factors.</em></p> Dhirendra Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 14:11:21 +0000 Study of Metformin Effect on Antimicrobial Property <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Metformin is believed that marvelous survivor for diabetes and coined as glucose eater among all oral hypoglycemic agents. Antibiotic Resistance is the major issue which compromising the treatment of bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic infection. The present study showed that effectiveness of metformin drug on microbes. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study conducted in the department of pharmacology in the carrier institute of medical sciences over a period of six month.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Antimicrobial activity of metformin was evaluated against&nbsp; Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and&nbsp; fungi using disk diffusion technique of Kierby baur methods. CIP &amp; AK was used as standard antibiotics. Antioxidant potentiality of metformin was investigated by DPPH scavenging activity. Metformin active at 500 </em><em>μ</em><em>g/ml, showed very good antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial strains with an average zone of inhibition of 12-15mm. </em><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Metformin demonstrated a pronounced inhibitory action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an organism which is known to be multidrug resistant. The tested fungi are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The tested drug showed very good antifungal activity with an average 13-17 mm zone of inhibition.</em></p> Meherunisa ., Sapna Jaiswal, Vikas Seth ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 14:15:29 +0000 Fracture of Distal 3rd of Femur Operated with using Rush-pin (Eiffel Tower Fixation) <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>The goal of this study is to determine functional outcome of Rush-pin fixation for fracture distal third of femur. </em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>30 Patients of fracture of distal third of femur treated with Rush-pin fixation. Majority of patient belong to 21-40 yr age group (range 8-74 yr.). Out of 30 patient 22 were male and 8 were female. 70% got their injury in road traffic accident.</em></p> <p><em>According to Donald classification based on radio-analysis out of 30 patients, 11 were type I, 13 were type II, 6 were type III, 5 were type IV &amp; 5 were type V. All fracture fixed with Rush-Pin, intercondylar fracture fixed with cancellous screw.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Majority of patients start full weight bearing at 4 to 5 months. Bursa formation</em></p> <p><em>at ends of pin formed in one case. Non-union, delayed union were not found. Flexion more than 100<sup>°</sup> achieved in 76.6% cases. Two patient had restricted knee movement. 56.6% patients had excellent result, 26.6% had satisfactory result &amp; 6.6% were failure.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Patient having transverse fracture of distal third of femur (Donald type II) had better result with rush pin fixation (Eiffel tower fixation) as compared to comminuted fracture or spiral or fracture with intercondylar extension.</em></p> Shiv Pal Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:06:39 +0000 Evaluation of Association of Anthropometric Indices Related to Obesity with Pulmonary Function Tests in Female Medical Students: An Institutional Based Study <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Obesity and body fat distribution are important predictors of coronary heart disease. Pulmonary function tests are usually carried out for assessing the functional impairments and to make diagnosis. Hence; we planned the present study to evaluation of association of anthropometric indices related to obesity with pulmonary function tests in female medical students. </em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present investigation included assessment of association of Anthropometric Indices Related to Obesity with Pulmonary Function Tests in Female Medical Students. Total of 150 female medical students were included in the present study. Measurement of the height, hip circumference, and weight of all the subjects was done.&nbsp; Waist circumference was measured and value of equal to or less than 80 cm was considered as normal, while subjects with value of more than 80 cm were considered at high risk. In the sitting position by using the nose clips, spirometry was performed in all the subjects. The pulmonary parameters recorded included Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow {FEF (25-75%)}, Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), FEV1: FVC. Respiratory Rate (RR) was also noted.&nbsp; </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>Mean FVC and FEV<sub>1</sub> in the present study was found to be 2.5 and 2.3 respectively. Mean respiratory rate was found to be 15 per minute. We obtained significant correlation between difference anthropometric variables related to obesity and lung function tests in female medical studies. </em><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Significant correlation exists between difference anthropometric variables related to obesity and lung function tests in female medical students. </em></p> Sonam Bansal, Manish Agarwal, Piyush Gupta, Kavita Yadav, Yogesh Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:01:30 +0000 Incidence of Hypothyroidism in Infertile Patients with Menstrual Irregularities <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: - It is important to estimate in females the level of serum thyroid hormones throughout infertility to avoid its existence later on. The aim in this study, was to estimate thyroid function tests in infertile patients with menstrual irregularities.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong><em>: - This case control study was performed in 90 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Biochemical parameters were measured was serum hormones triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Result</em></strong><em>: - Serum T3, T4 and TSH level were statistically significant in infertile women. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was found at higher side in infertile women.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: - This study concludes that, high occurrence of hypothyroidism was found in infertile women and it shows a positive correlation with menstrual disorder.</em></p> Saleha Shaheen, S P Saxena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 17:00:28 +0000 The technical difficulties in oral surgery are leading many surgeons to believe that the coronectomy technique is always the best choice for the treatment of impacted third molars in intimate relation with the mandibular nerve. The objective of this study <p><em>The technical difficulties in oral surgery are leading many surgeons to believe that the coronectomy technique is always the best choice for the treatment of impacted third molars in intimate relation with the mandibular nerve. The objective of this study is to discuss conventional extraction and coronectomy, considering its respective advantages and the experience of the surgical team that can shed light on experts allowing to a better reflection on this trend and thus contributes to the best surgical choice. This clinical case reports a patient who presented the inferior third molar with impaction and root apices near of the mandibular nerve. Despite evidence to perform coronectomy, conventional extraction was done. The patient had no complications, displaying mild paresthesia during seven postoperative days. The immediate or late unpredictability of the coronectomy leads us to conclude that conventional extraction should be the technique of choice for the extraction of the third molar in close relation with the mandibular nerve, except in particular cases.</em></p> Marcelo Pinheiro Guedes Uzeda, Carlos Fernando de Almeida Barros Mourão, Ruth-Ann Jehovana Been, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito Resende, José de Albuquerque Calasans-Maia, Monica Diuana Calasans-Maia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Sep 2018 08:54:35 +0000