International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan en-US International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2454-9886 Simvastatin and Its Role in Anti-Inflammation and Cancer Therapy: A Review <p><em>3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme, a reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely used drugs&nbsp; to reduce lipid levels by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. Simvastatin, a lipophilic statin is one of the most frequently prescribed statin drugs throughout the world due to profound reductions in LDL-C with excellent tolerability, with very little risk of important adverse effects, to a lower extent. It also reduce triglycerides and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Beside&nbsp; this, studies on simvastatin have shown to exhibit numerous pleiotropic effects, has beneficial effect on endothelial function, smooth muscle cell function, haemostasis, vascular wall function, LDL oxidation, kidney diseases, inflammation and anticarcinogenic effects on many types of cancer including prostate, breast hepatic and colon carcinoma. In this review, we present an overview of simvastatin and its relevance in anti-inflammation and cancer management. </em></p> Raafia Izhar Gufran Ali Sibte Akbar Abidi Mohammad Mahtab Copyright (c) 2022 Raafia Izhar, Gufran Ali, Sibte Akbar Abidi, Mohammad Aftab 2022-07-03 2022-07-03 8 2 PH1 PH7 Impairment of cognition in patients of bipolar disorder in euthymia in Indian population <p>Background - Bipolar disorder is one of the common mental disorders(CMD) in India. It leads to significant cognitive deficit even during the period of euthymia. So, it is important to identify the various cognitive deficits in euthymic bipolar disorder patients in Indian population.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods - The study was conducted over a period of 2 years in AIIMS Jodhpur, Rajasthan. 30 cases and 30 controls were selected. Cases were selected by administering Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) and Young mania rating scale (YMRS) to the bipolar disorder patient, recruited from Psychiatry OPD, to select the patients who were in euthymia. Cognitive domains such as attention, memory, fluency, language and Visuospatial were tested in both the groups and compared. Kruskal - Wallis test was employed to compare the 2 sample groups for different variables. In this study we wanted to observe the decline in cognitive function in healthy vs euthymic bipolar disorder patients and to know the various domains of cognition that are affected.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Results - This study shows a presence of cognitive decline in euthymic bipolar disorder patients as compared to controls. A significant difference was found in all the cognitive domains namely attention, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial between cases and controls.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusion - This study shows a positive correlation between cognitive decline and bipolar patients during the period of euthymia. This suggests that even though the bipolar disorder patient is in remission, there is still a residual effect on cognition during euthymic state which can eventually affect the day to day life and can hamper the quality of life.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords - Bipolar disorder , euthymia , cognition , HAM - D , YMRS</p> Preeti Kaliramana Copyright (c) 2022 Preeti Kaliramana 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 HP1 HP4 The Determinants Of Leptin Levels In Obese Diabetics and Non-Obese Diabetics: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><strong><em>BACKGROUND</em></strong>: There is an established link between Hyperleptinemia and Obesity. Leptin resistance, characterized by elevated levels of circulating leptin together with disruption of hormone signalling, is an important feature of obesity. Hyperleptinemia has been demonstrated to correlate with insulin resistance.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>OBJECTIVE</em></strong><em>: </em>Evaluation of Leptin In Obese and Non-Obese Diabetics.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><strong><em>MATERIAL AND METHODS</em></strong>: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the levels of leptin in non-obese and obese and its relationship. A total of 30 obese diabetics and 30 non-obese diabetics were involved in the study which was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh. Collected blood samples were estimated for HbA1C and leptin levels. Body Fat was estimated using Body Stat in Non-Obese Diabetics and Obese Diabetics.&nbsp;</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><em>Results</em></span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">: In this study, Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese diabetics compared to non-obese diabetics. Data presents correlations between leptin in obese with HbA1C, BMI, and Body Fat in Obese</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><em>Conclusion:</em></span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;Elevated Leptin Levels is a strong marker of obesity which suggests Leptin Resistance.&nbsp;</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Leptin and Obesity</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Richin John Koshy Sangeeta Singhal S Aijaz A. Rizvi Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi Amit Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2022 Richin John Koshy, Sangeeta Singhal, S Aijaz A. Rizvi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, Amit Mukherjee 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 HP5 HP7 Assessment for Nutritional Status Among Pre-School Children in South Delhi, India <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Weight is an important metric to measure protein energy status, and women from underdeveloped or developed nations who are heavier at pre-pregnancy deliver heavier babies. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This study was conducted in JJ Colony, Madanpur Khadar Extension of South Delhi and included 50 children each in two groups (between 24-35 months and 36-47 months of age), with equal number of both genders. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were measured.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Underweight in age 24-47 months: </em><em>51 (51%), 36 (36%), 11 (11%) and 2 (2%) children were found to be in the ranges of normal weight, Grade-I, Grade-II, and severely underweight, respectively by Indian Academy of Paediatrics or IAP classification. By Gomez classification, the same were estimated to be 28 (28%), 45 (45%), 25 (25%), and 2 (2%).</em></p> <p><em>Stunting and wasting in age 24-47 months: </em><em>52 (52%), 11 (11%), 16 (16%), and 21 (21%) children were found to be normal, in Grade-I, Grade-II and in Grade-III stunting respectively in height for age, while 82 (82%), 13 (13%), 4 (4%), and 1 (1%) children&nbsp; were found to be normal, in Grade-I, Grade-II and Grade-III wasting in weight for height respectively; using the Waterlow classification.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The most extensively used markers of nutritional quality in a population are anthropometric measures. In a total of 100 children, three types of assessments based on weight and height were done - weight for age to rule out underweight, height for age to rule out stunting and weight for height to rule out wasting.</em></p> Anis Ahmad Sazina Muzammil Krishna Mohan Khalid Umer Khayyam Copyright (c) 2022 Anis Ahmad, Sazina Muzammil, Krishna Mohan, Khalid Umer Khayyam 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 HP8 HP11 Efficacy, measurement and comparison of biosafety and biosecurity courses in mitigating emerging risks of COVID-19 pandemic <p>Biosafety &amp; Biosecurity training in COVID-19 pandemic proved beneficial for lab workers exposed to potentially infectious materials by increasing level of awareness. Essential that they be forewarned to the hazards and risks in working environment for biohazards; how to save themselves (Biosafety) and safeguard the product (Biosecurity). Development of table of specification, national level involvement, selection through entry test, custom-made curriculum. Construction of 50 questions, pre- and final post-assessment test ascertaining cognition level on the subject after completion of course. 15 questions for each session were also constructed to evaluate their initial cognition level and post session proficiency. There were eight contact sessions. Each session, pre- and post-assessments to ascertain impact of awareness. Overall result of pre-test assessment of 50 questions was <em>33.0%,</em> post-test assessment was <em>90.7%,</em> indicating overall elevation of awareness (<em>57.7%).</em> Analysis of results (pre- and post) through a paired t-test yielded highly significant P value of <em>0.000001</em>. Likert scale for course and facilitator evaluation by Cronbach’s alpha, showed variables having maximum score <em>&gt; 0.8</em>, indicating the high results for feedback evaluation. Proper awareness of lab workers is mandatory for Biorisk management in keeping them biosafe which is additional benefit in the wake of pandemic.</p> shams ul arfin qasmi Copyright (c) 2022 shams ul arfin qasmi 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 MB1 MB5 Clinico- pathological profile of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland- A retrospective study at tertiary cancer care hospital, Punjab <p>Aim of the study : A retrospective study conducted in the department of radiation oncology to review the management aspects of the adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and identify the outcome and corelation of the recurrence pattern with pathological and clinical findings.</p> <p>Material and methods: Data of 10 patients of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland treated over a period of six years were reviewed with respect to presentation, treatment received , end points and outcome.</p> <p>Results : All of the 10 patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy . Eight&nbsp; (80%) patients were alive at a median follow up of 2 years. Five ( 50%) patients without evidence of disease and 3 patients with the disease. One patient developed scalp metastasis during the course of radiation therapy and another one developed lung metastasis.</p> <p>Conclusion: adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is a rare neoplasm with aggressive outcome. It is often treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy and needs long follow up.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> karuna singh puja sahai deepak arora pardeep sharma sheetal sachdeva Copyright (c) 2022 karuna singh; puja sahai, deepak arora, pardeep sharma, sheetal sachdeva 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 OP1 OP4 Treatment outcomes and its trends amongst drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients treated under programmatic conditions in Bengaluru city (2017-2020) <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>India is having 27% of the world’s drug-resistant TB burden. To address this emerging public health concern PMDT services were rolled out in the year 2007 and nationwide coverage was achieved in the year 2013. In India, MDR RR TB patients who started on second-line treatment in the years 2018 and 2020 under PMDT had favourable treatment outcomes of 56% and 57% respectively. Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the treatment outcomes in patients of DR TB &amp; MDR RR TB in Bengaluru city Karnataka, India.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using programmatic data among the notified TB cases during the year 2017-2020 under NTEP of Bengaluru city. Socio-demographic data, clinical characteristics and diagnostic data were studied. Data analysis was conducted in Python (version 3.9.4) to ascertain the treatment outcomes and their trend in the study area.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results and conclusions</strong></p> <p>A total of 689 patients were identified as DR TB cases having resistance to any first-line anti TB drug during the year 2017-2020. The mean age of the DR TB patients was observed as 36.7 years (95% CI: 22.3-51.1). Among them 434(63.0%) were male, 254(36.9%) were female and 01(0.1%) were transgender. The study revealed the favourable treatment outcomes of 56.6% among the overall DR TB patients and 42.2% among the MDR RR TB patients in Bengaluru city. The study depicted trends of improvements in the successful treatment outcomes among overall DR TB patients from the year 2017 to 2020, but on the other hand, the same among the MDR RR TB patients is a cause of concern. The study highlights adopting a multipronged scheme focusing on the End TB strategy by improving diagnostic capability, assuring high-quality treatment and averting drug resistance propagation among drug-sensitive patients which is central to meeting the challenge of DR-TB in India.</p> SANJAY SINGH Rakhee P. Kelaskar Copyright (c) 2022 SANJAY SINGH, Rakhee P. Kelaskar 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 8 2 CM1 CM5