International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan en-US International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2454-9886 Status of Immunization Coverage among Preschool Children in an Area of South Delhi, New Delhi, India <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>High levels of immunization coverage in children can ensure the control of vaccine-preventable diseases, and there are various factors that can affect preschool immunization. Studies that focus on vaccination coverage in various populations are crucial for identifying the vaccination status of a given community and for strategizing the national programs. This study assessed the vaccination coverage in preschool children living in a resettlement colony in an area of New Delhi.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in JJ Colony, Madanpur Khadar Extension of South Delhi, New Delhi between October 2008 to January 2009, in 100 preschool children between 24 – 47 months of age, with equal number in both genders. No significant association of the vaccination status with factors like gender of the children, educational, or socio-economic condition, was found in this study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Out of a total of 100 children studied, forty-four children (44%) were fully vaccinated, forty-nine children (49%) were partially immunised, and seven children (7%) were not vaccinated. Vaccines for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT-I) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV-I) had the maximum coverage (92%) while DPT Booster and OPV Booster had the lowest (44%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Future possibilities and potential for evaluating vaccination coverage should be explored in vulnerable areas like resettlement colonies, in migrant populations and in urban poor sections of society to get estimates on the gap in vaccination coverage in such areas.</em></p> Anis Ahmad Sazina Muzammil Krishna Mohan Md. Aftab Alam Khalid Umer Khayyam Copyright (c) 2022 Anis Ahmad, Sazina Muzammil, Krishna Mohan, Md. Aftab Alam, Khalid Umer Khayyam 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 HP1 HP4 Students’ perspective of online medical education in India during COVID-19 pandemic: The need for Rural-Urban equity <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sudden shifting of medical education to online mode during COVID presented several challenges for teachers and students. &nbsp;It was complicated by differences in resources between rural and urban India. We assessed perception of medical students for online education and difference in these between students of rural and urban areas. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional pan India online survey was conducted amongst undergraduate medical students. Responses were collected for one week during May 2021. <strong>Results</strong>: 1125 students from 52 medical colleges responded. 85% of students already had device for online classes. Non-urban students were more affected by network interruptions. 85% students complained of eye problems while 71% complained of postural issues. 77% of students did not have practical training, with problem increasing in higher professional years. Interaction with teachers and classmates was another area of concern highlighted by most of the students. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Internet connectivity, health issues and practical training are major concerns of medical students for online education. We need to ensure that non-urban residents are not at a disadvantage due to lack of infrastructure in non-urban areas. Medical institutions also need to innovate for two-way interaction between students and teachers.</p> Rajeev Goyal Monil Singhai Tariq Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Rajeev Goyal, Monil Singhai, Tariq Mahmood 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 BC1 BC6 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF BIOPSY CASES PROCESSSED AT DIAGNOSTIC CENTERS OF PAF FAISAL AND MASROOR HOSPAITAL. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction: &nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Histopathological patterns help to define the orientation as well as the duration of disease. The findings identified through this tool aids in the identification and selection of treatment modality as well as provides a prognostic assessment of the condition. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methodology: &nbsp;</strong></p> <p>A prospective study design was opted for this research. A total of 221 patients from either gender, ages between 31 to 38 years, undergoing different types of surgical procedures were enrolled from the Faisal and Masroor Base Hospital, Karachi Pakistan. After receiving consent, a biopsy specimen was taken and transferred to the laboratory for staining and further processing for histopathological examination.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The major findings isolated among specimens constituted of samples from the Appendix; 67.87% (150/221) followed by stomach; 18.10% (40/221). Among the appendix specimens, 82% (41/221) patients were suffering from acute appendicitis and the remaining had peri-appendicitis. Amid the stomach specimens 65% (26/221) patients were diagnosed with (Mild) Chronic Superficial Gastritis, followed by 20% (8/221) patients with H-Pylori associated (Mild) Chronic Superficial Gastritis and the remaining were normal gastric antrum and chronic gastritis with partial villous atrophy.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;By using histopathological examination, the outcome of many diseases can be determined at an earlier stage thereby assisting in lowering the levels of morbidity and mortality among the population.&nbsp;In our research we were able to distinguish a variety of infections among different areas/ organs of the body.&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shamsul Arfin Qasmi Saira Bugti Nazia Qamar Afsheen Ghani Kauser Saldera Copyright (c) 2022 Shamsul Arfin Qasmi, Saira Bugti, Nazia Qamar, Afsheen Ghani, Kauser Saldera 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 PA1 PA4 NA MYCOLOGY OF EYE INFECTIONS <p><strong><em>OBJECTIVE:</em></strong><em> Fungi are commonly found in the environment and most of them are either commensals or nonpathogenic. Eye infections are caused by bacteria, viruses and less commonly by fungi, therefore not given much attention by the practitioners and also by ophthalmologists. In the last one decade incidence of fungal eye infections has increased due to increase in the number of patients with poor immunity. Common conditions which impair the immunity are prolonged use of steroids and antibacterial broad spectrum antibiotics, use of immunosuppressive drugs in cancer patients, in patients with organ transplant and some infections like AIDS. Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus are the fungi frequently found to be associated with fungal eye infections. Trauma is the most significant predisposing factor particularly when accompanied by contamination with vegetable matter. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>Samples such as corneal scrapings, Conjunctival swab, Vitreous &amp; Aqeous aspirates were collected asceptivcally and sent to microbiology laboratory for KOH wet mount examination and fungal culture. KOH preparation was examined directly under microscope and culture were done &nbsp;on SDA, incubated at 25° c for three weeks. <strong>Results: </strong>Males were more commonly infected (66.5%) as compared to females (33.5%) The overall positivity in direct microscopy ( KOH preparation) was 32% while positivity in culture was 51%.The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium (16) followed by A. flavus ( 07),A. fumigatus (06),Candida sp.(06) and Curvalaria (03)</em></p> DR. ARUN KUMAR GUPTA DO RICHA RICHA Dr. RAVINDER PAL SINGH DO Copyright (c) 2022 DR. ARUN KUMAR GUPTA DO, RICHA RICHA, Dr. RAVINDER PAL SINGH DO 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 MB1 MB4 Clinical Usefulness of Cancer Markers in Cancer <p><strong><em>Background: Objectives:</em></strong> <em>Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body these cells can infiltrate normal body tissues of body.&nbsp; The definitive diagnosis of cancer being histo-pathological examination of tissue. The measurement of tumor markers is currently one of the most rapidly growing areas in laboratory medicine and is helpful in differential diagnosis of tumor type in metastatic deposits and also during follow-up evaluations.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Advanced Cancer Institute is a tertiary care cancer institute in Malwa region of Punjab, old cases with proven history and&nbsp; in the advanced stage of disease, measurement of tumor markers in them is a very important tool for their evaluation of treatment outcome and in staging, emphasis of our study&nbsp; is to highlight and&nbsp; to encourage tumor marker assays for early diagnosis of cancer by checking baseline levels in&nbsp; healthy and in&nbsp; high risk population for screening for the presence of cancer.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The Study was carried out Department of Microbiology, Total of 300 Blood Samples were checked in Automated Immune Analyzer (Biomeriux) with different panels of Tumor markers (PSA,AFP,CEA19.9,CA-125,CA15.3)Kits available in our Lab. of commonly diagnosed cancer.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Focus has to be directed towards identification and proper use of suitable tumor markers which may prove to be an invaluable tool to early detect the deadly disease in mankind and not to use markers only as a prognostic indicator in proven cases.</em></p> Deepak Arora Parvinder Sandhu Karuna Singh Pooja Arora Sarthak Grover Copyright (c) 2022 Deepak Arora, Parvinder Sandhu, Karuna Singh, Pooja Arora, Sarthak Grover 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 MB5 MB7 Treatment of Post-traumatic Bone Defects with infection in long bones <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Open fractures are a challenging condition to treat because they are frequently compounded by infection and nonunion. Traditional bone defect care strategies are mostly focused on fracture union rather than infection prevention. The goal of this study is to use the Masquelet approach to examine the outcome of a post-traumatic defect with infection in long bones. This method is a two-step process. Stage I surgery includes debridement and the placement of an antibacterial spacer in the bone defect. Stage II surgery involved removing the spacer while preserving the induced membrane that had grown on the spacer's surface and filling the bone-gap with morselized iliac crest bone-graft within the membrane sleeve.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>There were 22 patients in this study (18 males and 4 females), all of them had infected long bone fractures with a bone defect. The average length of the bone defect was 3.5 centimetres. The duration of follow-up varied from 6 to 15 months.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>After an average of 11.5 weeks following the first step of surgery, radiological union was achieved. After stage 1, no patient had any remaining infection. After radiological union, all of the patients were able to mobilise with full weight bearing and a satisfactory range of motion in the adjoining joints.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>With favourable outcomes, this treatment can be used on infected fractures with bone loss on a regular basis. Antibiotic cement spacers, used in conjunction with complete debridement, minimise the risk of infection. The graft is revascularized through induced biomembrane. In most circumstances, union may be predicted; nonetheless, the length of time it takes to reach an agreement is a constraint. The technique is low-cost and does not necessitate any additional training or equipment. Despite the fact that it is a two-stage procedure, it does not necessitate several surgeries as in traditional approaches.</p> Hari Om Agarwal Harjit K. Singh Chawla Ashish Garg Girish Sahni Copyright (c) 2022 Hari Om Agarwal, Harjit K. Singh Chawla, Ashish Garg, Girish Sahni 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 OT1 OT3 Assessment of Incidence and Risk Factors of Dry Socket <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alveolar osteitis (AO) is one of the extractions wound healing disorder. Most authors agree that surgical trauma and difficulty of surgery play a significant role in the development of AO. Hence, under the light of above-mentioned data, the present study was undertaken for assessing the incidence and risk factors of dry socket.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> A total of 200 subjects scheduled to undergo dental extraction procedures under local anesthesia were included in the present study. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. All the procedures were carried out under the hands of experienced surgeons. Follow-up was done and incidence of dry socket was recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, incidence of dry socket in the present study was 17.5 percent. Positive tobacco smoking/chewing habit, Oral contraceptives, Female gender, Existing tooth/gum infection, Past history of dry socket, Traumatic extraction and Mandibular molar extraction were the risk factors in 62.85 %, 34.28 %, 71.42 %, 14.28 %, 25.71 %, 42.85 % and 54.28 % of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dry socket is a commonly encountered phenomenon and can occur the under the hands of skilled and experienced oral surgeons also. Hence, early recognition is necessary.</p> Sudhir Kumar Rohit Goyal Sanjana Arora Kumari Kusum Copyright (c) 2022 Sudhir Kumar, Rohit Goyal, Sanjana Arora, Kumari Kusum 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 8 1 DS1 DS3