International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2019-02-18T18:20:27+00:00 Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</sup></p> <h3><sup>Connecting Researchers Globally</sup></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</sup></p> <h3><sup>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</sup></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><sup>The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</sup></p> A Dental Surgeon’s Experience in A Biotechnology Lab: Trying to Resolve Surgical Controversies with Blood-Derived Growth Factors 2018-12-29T10:23:09+00:00 Carlos Fernando de Almeida Barros Mourão <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Nowadays, there are a lot of articles about blood-derived growth factors (BDGF) using different protocols. These blood by-products have many applications in Medicine, especially in Dentistry. The most important thing is the use of an autologous biomaterial, from the patient's own blood to improve healing, soft tissue growth, hemostasis etc.[1-5] Many dental surgeons use BDGF in their surgical protocols, which is possible to observe in scientific articles,[1-4] dentistry congresses and especially on social media (although the last is unethical way to share and publish research results or cases reports).</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Hospital Based Study on Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Population 2018-12-29T10:23:08+00:00 Nahar Singh Shivpal Singh Sharda Singh Manish Choudhary <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, yet it is the most under-diagnosed and under-treated nutritional decency in the world. It is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub- continent. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy individuals.</p> <p>Methods: The data of 25-hydroxy(OH) vitamin D assay of 540 healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at orthopedics ward of S.K. Hospital SIKAR over a period of two years, were extracted from the hospital information system and was reviewed. 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH) vitamin D&lt; 20 ng/ml, insufficiency as 25(OH) vitamin D between 20 and 29 ng/ml and 25(OH) vitamin D sufficiency (VDS) as 30-100 ng/ml, Potential toxicity&gt;100 ng/ml. Results: A total of 540 healthy individuals were included in this study. There were 300 females and 240 males.365 healthy adults were found to be Vitamin D deficient. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency was found to be 67.5%. 225 females and 140 males were found to be Vitamin D deficiency, prevalence being 75% in female and 58.3% in male. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy individuals.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T08:40:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Topical Phytotherapeutic Effects on Elevated Level of Serum Creatine Kinase- Muscle as Risk Factor of muscular degeneration in Knee-Osteoarthritis: Part III. A Systematic Meta-Analysis 2018-12-29T10:23:09+00:00 Apurba Ganguly <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The knee-osteoarthritis (KOA) is a risk for muscular degeneration by the elevation of creatine kinase-muscle (CK-MM). The present study was aiming to normalize the elevated level of CK-MM by topical phytotherapeutic protocol correlated with anatomical measurements, the Kellgren- Lawrence (KL) grading systems of radiographic KOA, body mass index (BMI), overall improvement of pain under visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain, stiffness and physical function under WOMAC index. Methods: Baseline data from 108 patients (66.67 % females) with KOA aged 40-75 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Bilateral anatomical measurements included the gap at the knee between the short head of the biceps femoris and the surface of the bed, diameter of muscles of thighs and calves, angles of straight leg raising, flexion and extension in different positions and BMI were measured using appropriate instruments. The elevated level of CK-MM, scored KL grading system and pain under VAS and WOMAC index were also evaluated at the baseline and after 42 days of treatment. Results: All the bilateral leg anatomical measurements were symmetry at the end of the 42nd session (P&lt;0.0001). The significant changes were observed in VAS (P&lt;0.00001), WOMAC index (P&lt;0.0001), CK-MM level (P&lt;0.0001), BMI (P&lt;0.0001) and improvement of KL grading scores. Conclusions: The improvements of damaged leg muscles due to muscular dystrophy, connective tissue damage etc. confirmed with normalization of elevated serum CK-MM level, above mentioned anatomical measurements, BMI, VAS, WOMAC index and KL grading systems may be synergistic effect of phytochemicals during specific phytotherapeutic treatment protocol.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T08:47:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Retrospective Evaluation of Patients with Xerophthalmia Visited in Hospital 2018-12-29T10:23:10+00:00 Ashok Kumar Jindal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The condition of xeropthalmia refers to the spectrum of ocular manifestations generally because of the vitamin A deficiency. Signs and symptoms include those involving impaired sensitivity of retina to light generally termed as night blindness. In order of their appearance and severity the epithelial disruption of cornea and conjunctiva for example conjunctival xerosis, bitot spots, corneal xerosis and keratomalacia.</p> <p>Methods: A detailed and elaborated study was conducted in the department ophthalmology, Swatantra Sainani late Dr. Mangal Singh District Hospital, Dholpur, Rajasthan, India. A total of 54 patients were studied and involved in the study over a period of 6 months. All patients were divided into three categories of mild, moderate and severe xeropthalmia. Patients from 13 years to 55 years of age were selected for the study analysis. An informed consent was obtained from each patient or from the guardian. All patients were asked to get a vitamin A test done.</p> <p>Results: A total of 54 patients so selected for the study analysis, 34 were female (63%) and 20 were male(37%).(Graph1). Accordingtotheclinicalvaluesandseverity23patientswerediagnosedwith mild xeropthalmia with slight difficulty in night vision and clinical values of 0.25-0.30 mg/L, 19 patients were diagnosed with moderate xeropthalmia with values of 0.20-0.24 mg/L and 12 patients were diagnosed with severe xeropthalmia with values of below 0.20mg/L of vitamin A in blood at any given time.</p> <p>Conclusion: Xeropthalmia can occur in any age group and especially in pre school-age children, adolescents and pregnant women. However, children are at higher risk of vitamin A deficiency and xeropthalmia, owing to their greater vitamin A requirements for growth.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T08:51:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study to Compare the incidence of Post-Operative Pain in Patients Undergoing Haemorrhoidectomy with Lateral Sphincterotomy Vs. Haemorrhoidectomy without Lateral Sphincterotomy 2018-12-29T10:23:11+00:00 Avanish Kumar Saxena Amrita Gupta Amrita Gupta Pulkit Agarwal Sandeep Mangla <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Haemorrhoids are common pathology of anal canal. Over the last few years, because of new surgical techniques, increased attention has been laid on Surgical Management of hemorrhoids, still open Haemorrhoidectomy remains the mainstay of treatment. Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications of open Haemorrhoidectomy. In our study we decided to compare the incidence of postoperative pain in open Haemorrhoidectomy with or without lateral sphincterotomy.</p> <p>Methods: To compare the incidence of post-operative pain in patient of open Haemorrhoidectomy with lateral sphincterotomy versus open Haemorrhoidectomy without lateral sphincterotomy. Results: In our study group A in which open Haemorrhoidectomy along with lateral sphincterotomy was done had statistically significant less postoperative pain at 6 hours and 24 hours postoperatively and on postoperative day 7 at the time of follow up with Chi square test (P&lt;0.0001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Addition of lateral sphincterotomy decreased post-operative pain and also reduced the need for post-operative analgesia in a significant number of patients. Hence through this study, we concluded that in conventional open Haemorrhoidectomy, addition of lateral sphincterotomy is an effective, convenient, and simple way to reduce post-operative pain.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T08:56:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of Eating Disorder and Body Image Concern Among Female Students 16- 21 year of Age in Government Home Economics College, Lahore, Pakistan 2018-12-29T10:23:11+00:00 Saadia Shahzad Ayesha Iftikhar Fakhra Sultana Hafsa Batool Maryam Imran Rida Asif Sameen Azhar <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Eating disorders are more common in women, especially in teen age girls and young women are at greater risk as they are more preoccupied with their body shape and diet. Objectives: 1) To identify the presence of eating disorder risk among young females of 16-21 year of age 2) To determine association between eating disorder risk and body image concerns among females of 16- 21 year of age. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study conducted among young female students; in a period of four months. Sample size was 1200 female students 16-21 year of age. Non- probability sampling technique was applied, and purposive sampling was done to recruit the study subjects. Data collection was done on two standard questionnaires: EAT 26 for eating disorder and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-8) for body image concerns. Data analysis plan was: descriptive statistics calculated, frequency trends noted for eating disorder, behavior problem, and body image concerns, Bivariate analysis applied to identify association between EAT 26 scores and body image concerns. Results: 58% of the students were found to be at risk of having eating disorder, whereas 42% were not. Behavioral problem was present in 72% of the respondents; whereas absent in 27%. Conclusion: Highly significant association (P-value 0.001) was found between eating disorder and body image concerns, in the study population.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T08:59:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changes in Electrocardiogram Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and its Prognostic Implications 2018-12-29T10:23:12+00:00 Malay Acharyya Indrajit Mondal Dipankar Mukhopadhyay <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The elevation of troponin-T (Trop-t) and creatinine kinase myocardial isoform (Ckmb) and elevation of these markers lead to major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). The association between above-mentioned parameters along with electrocardiogram (ECG) changes can be suitable diagnostic tool for myocardial injury following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The present study was attempted to know the association of the changes in surface ECG and cardiac biomarkers and MACEs following PCI with the outcome in follow up among patients in eastern India. Methods: In present study, 100 patients were randomly selected for coronary angioplasty between April2012 to March2013. All the cases were referred to catheterization laboratory for elective PCI for single vessel or multivessel in native coronary artery. The biomarkers such as trop-t and Ckmb and MACEs along with changes in ECG were estimated as per standard protocol.</p> <p>Results: ECG changes were statistically significantly correlated with post procedure Trop-t elevation (p&lt;0.001), Ckmb elevation (p&lt;0.001) and MACEs (P&lt;0.01 and p&lt;0.001) in 6 months followed up. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study showed significant relationship between MACEs during followed up and changed in surface ECG along with Trop-t and Ckmb elevation in the post-PCI period of six-month followed up in stable ischaemic heart disease.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:02:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Status of Lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients of A, B, O and AB Blood Groups 2018-12-29T10:23:12+00:00 Shalini Arora Tariq Mahmood Gaura Dadheech Ramesh Chandra Gupta <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Hypertension is the most common illness of circulatory system and is a worldwide health challenge affecting both developed and developing nations. The development of hypertension is a multi-factorial process and the risk factors for its development are many such as genetic factors, obesity, age &amp; sex factors, salt sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia &amp; insulin resistance, environmental factors, socio economic imbalances, free radicals/reactive Oxygen species, oxidative stress, blood groups etc. The role of blood groups in the etiology of essential hypertension has long been suspected.</p> <p>Methods: The study design was a cohort study consisting of 15 hypertensive patients of the A, B, AB and O each. Anthropometric parameters such as Blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and Body Mass Index (BMI) and Biochemical parameters such as Blood grouping, Blood Glucose levels, Haemoglobin levels, Lipid profile, which included Triglycerides, Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL and VLDL cholesterol, were measured using standardized methods. The various parameters were compared between hypertensives of the various blood groups and statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Mean and SD of each group was calculated, and Unpaired student’s t-test was applied (P &lt; 0.05 considered as significant).</p> <p>Results: When BMI was compared among hypertensive groups we observed significant increased level of BMI in group A as compared to group O hypertensives. (10.36%; P&lt;0.05). While comparing SBP between hypertensive groups we observed significant raised level of SBP in group A as compared to group B (9.38%; P&lt;0.01) and O (10.45%; P&lt;0.01). Similarly, DBP was found to be increased significantly in group A as compared to group B ((5.34%; P&lt;0.05) and O hypertensive patients (5.06%; P&lt;0.001). LDL-C and HDL-C were non-significantly altered in these groups however value of VLDL-C was found increased in group A as compared to group O hypertensives (20.38%; P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significantly higher SBP and DBP in the hypertensives of the A blood group as compared to the hypertensives of the B and O blood groups. It also found increased levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C along with decreased levels of HDL-C was in hypertensive patients predominantly in group A and AB hypertensive. The hypertensive patients of A blood group have shown a statistically significant increase in BMI as compared to hypertensives of the other blood groups.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:05:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Prospective Study on Role of IV Amino Acid Infusion in Improving Pregnancy Outcome in Cases of Oligohydramnios 2018-12-29T10:23:13+00:00 Kshiti Baxi Shalini Bansal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Adequate Amniotic fluid volume is essential for the normal growth and well-being of the foetus. Diminished liquor or oligohydramnios is quite often associated with abnormal foetal outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, foetal anomaly malpresentation, post maturity syndrome and foetal distress in labour</p> <p>Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, PMCH, Udaipur during the period of March 2015 to February 2016. The study group comprised of 50 clinically and sonographically proven cases of oligohydramnios in third trimester attending antenatal clinic and those admitted in antenatal ward and clean labour room at random.</p> <p>Results: Maximum no. (72% of patients) were in age group of 20-25 years and only 2 patients were less than 20years of age. 68% cases were from urban and 32% were from rural areas, as urban population is more aware about prenatal care. higher incidence of oligohydramnios cases were belonging to lower and middle class families i.e. 44% and 40% respectively and only 8 patients were from upper socio-economic status.</p> <p>Conclusion: it is suggested that for idiopathic oligohydramnios, intravenous aminoacid may prove useful in reducing maternal morbidity and perinatal morbidity and mortality and improving pregnancy outcome in developing countries.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:09:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Healthy Subjects Attending Rural Tertiary Care Centre in Western U.P. (Hapur) 2018-12-29T10:23:13+00:00 Vivek Sinha Poonam Kachhawa <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an elevated serum TSH level and normal concentrations of free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), T3 and T4. A positive association between thyroid and diabetes mellitus is well recognized but to study the effect of thyroid disorders on glucose metabolism in non-diabetic patients is an area for extensive research. Present study was planned to assess correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in non-diabetic patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>A case-control study was conducted on total 209 subjects. 109 patients were allotted in case group and 100 in control group. Controls were relatives and friends of patients who were matched for age and sex. Comparison between the case and the control groups were made using Student’s t-test (unpaired) and Box and Whisker Plot and regression graph were presented for correlation between serum TSH and HbA1c. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>It was found that there was a positive correlation between the levels of serum TSH (µU/L) and HbA1c (%) in all the participants of the study by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r=0.35, p &lt; 0.0001). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: HbA1c levels are increased in subclinical hypothyroid patients. The effects of the elevated levels of Serum TSH on the HbA1c must be considered when interpreting the HbA1c for the diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes in the subclinical hypothyroid patients. </em></p> 2018-12-29T09:12:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Problematic Internet Use and Sleepiness amongst Students of a Medical College in Sikkim 2018-12-29T10:23:14+00:00 Bhanu Pratap Singh Harshavardhan Sampath Sanjiba Dutta Prabhleen Singh Jaggi <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Problematic Internet use (PIU) has become a global social issue and can be regarded as an individual’s inability to control Internet usage which results in negative impact in daily life. Individuals who spent more time on surfing the Internet are likely to sleep late night and this further increases the level of tiredness. The present study was commenced to determine relationship between Internet uses and sleep patterns among medical college students.</p> <p>Methods: The present study was commenced among 149 undergraduate students studying at Sikkim Manipal Medical College. The severity of addiction to Internet was measured using Young’s Internet addiction test. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) which consists of subjective sleepiness scale comprising of eight items was used to measure daytime sleepiness. Significance of association of Internet addiction and sleep disturbance was done by Fisher’s 2 sample t- test and a value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant value.</p> <p>Results: The proportions of boys who were pathological Internet addicts (moderate to severe) were 9.5%. For girls, the corresponding proportions were 7.5%. The prevalence of Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was 20.1%. This study estimated the prevalence of pathological Internet using was 8.05%. Present study found an association between problematic Internet use and excessive daytime sleepiness. The association was statistically significant (p= 0.016).</p> <p>Conclusion: The present study shows that Internet overuse was strongly associated with EDS and other sleep problems in adolescents. Because the number of Internet addicts will continue to grow, clinicians should consider examining Internet addiction in adolescent cases of EDS.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:16:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Risk Factors for Acute Asthma Attack in Asthmatic Patients: A Hospital Based Study 2018-12-29T10:23:14+00:00 Ganeshee Lal Sharma Gordhan Singh Choudhary <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Asthma is categorized by the hyper activeness of the lower respiratory tract area. There is occurrence of specific signs and symptoms such as chest tightness, cough and wheeze. In major portion of the cases, the patient is symptomatic before the age of 5 years and the incidence of subjects becoming symptomatic after 40 years of age is only 25%. The chances of different respiratory conditions like asthma, COPD and rhinitis differs amongst different nations and also amongst areas of same country. The present study was conducted to determine the risk factors for acute asthma attack amongst asthmatic subjects.</p> <p>Methods: The present hospital based prospective survey was conducted in the department of T. B &amp;amp; Chest, Government Medical College, Barmer, Rajasthan, India. The study variables that were included in the study were history of smoking, crowing at home, age, gender, presence of pets, Kachha house etc. All the information was recorded in a tabulated form and analyzed statistically using SPSS software. For statistical analysis, chi square test was used. Probability value of less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: The study consisted equal percentage of females and males. From the table we can conclude that majority of the subjects were illiterate. Tertiary level educated subjects made the least count amongst the study population. Smoking was a risk factor amongst 56.7% of the cases and 22.2% of the controls. Congested locality was a risk factor amongst 72.2% of the cases and 27.8% of the controls Conclusion: The study draws to the conclusion that there are various precipitating factors for acute asthma attack. In our study there was a no gender predisposition. The major risk factor was smoke, either as smoking or kitchen smoke.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:19:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fractures of Distal Humerus Operated with Using Lambda Plate 2018-12-29T10:23:15+00:00 Shiv Pal Singh <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The goal of this study to determine functional outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with Lambda plate for intra/extra articular distal humerus fractures. Methods: 35 patients of communited intra-articular fractures distal humerus were operated. Out of 35, 23 (65%) were male, 12 (35%) were female, mean age of 38 year (range 17-67 years). According to classification proposed by Rise borough and Radin based on radiographic analysis, out of 35, 11 (31%) were type 2, 20(57%) were type 3 and rest of the patients were type 4 fractures. All fractures fixed with Lambda plate, inter- condylar fracture fix with malleolar screw or k-wire or both after trans olecranon osteotomy. Results: Mean follow-up of 11 months (range 6-15 months). Out of 35 patients 29 patients have complete radio-logical union within 4 months. None of the fracture go into non-union.</p> <p>Mean active elbow flexion was 1300 (range 900-1400) and active extension 150 (range 0-300), mean elbow flexion range exceeds 100 degree in 28 patients (80%), was between 600 and 1000 in 6(17%) and was less than 600 in one patient. Mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was 96 points (range 40-100). There were 30 excellent result (MEPS) 90-100 points, 2 good (75-89) 2 moderate result. Conclusion: Fracture of distal humerus fix with Lambda plate, malleolar screw after trans- olecranon osteotomy gave excellent results in term of fixation, stability and recovery of elbow functions.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:28:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Ketamine and Fentanyl Vs. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Post-operatively in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Prospective Comparative Study 2018-12-29T10:23:15+00:00 Sunita Sharma Navya Mishra <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Although disturbing emergence reactions are associated with its use, ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, in fact it causes some stimulation of the cardiovascular system. Methods: Two group were included in this study i.e. Group A &amp; Group B. Both group had 18 cases. This study conducted in Department of Anaesthesiology &amp; Critical Care, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College &amp; Hospital.</p> <p>Results: Demographic variables were compared between both groups A and B. Group A is A significant faster onset of sensory block was found in ketamine group in comparison to fentanyl group. (p-value&lt;0.001). While the time to achieve the highest level of sensory block was found to be almost similar in both the groups.</p> <p>Conclusion: Addition of ketamine or fentanyl to spinal bupivacaine were equally effective in pain control after abdominal hysterectomy.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:36:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Physiology Teaching Methods in Chandrapur Government Medical College 2018-12-29T10:23:15+00:00 Namrata S Loya Niwrutti Jiwane <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The primary goal of medical education is to produce quality doctors and not just quantity. Heightened focus on the quality of teaching in the new medical college has led to increased use of student surveys as a means of evaluating teaching.<br>Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate various teaching methods and skills adopted by a teacher in Physiology lectures by first year MBBS students of two successive batches admitted in newly established Chandrapur Government Medical College.</p> <p>Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was given to 100 first year medical students of first two successive batches towards the end of their academic year and feedback was taken in the form of selecting the most appropriate option applicable (OPTION: A = Always, M = Most Often, S = Sometimes, N = Never). Total numbers of A, M, S and N were calculated and given 3, 2, 1 and 0 marks for every A, M, S and N circled respectively. Maximum possible score was 54. 45 to 54 marks – Exceptional teaching skills, 30 to 44 marks – Superior teaching skills, 15 to 29 marks – Average teaching skills, 0 to 14 marks – Room for improvement.</p> <p>Results: In the first batch, maximum score was given for having clarity with the concepts and being audible, using simple language and audio-visual aids and explaining them their errors and how better they can perform. In second batch, apart from this, maximum score was given for relating the topic with their lives, giving examples, summarizing the concepts, asking them to answer questions, applying information in solving problems, encouraging them to learn in different ways, listening their comments, giving them feedback and finding out frequently whether every student has learnt the skills.</p> <p>Conclusion: Every medical teacher who delivers a lecture should make teaching meaningful with clarity in the concepts and audibility, promoting active learning by the students, understanding the individual differences, giving feedback at regular intervals and ensuring mastery in the subject.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:39:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Prospective Study on Incidence of Post- operative Wound Infection in Surgery Department 2018-12-29T10:23:16+00:00 Mohd Tarique <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Wound infection is the common and most troublesome disorder of wound healing. With new advancement in medicine, it is now possible to prevent and control infection. The use of antiseptics is considered to be a mile stone for safe surgery.<br>Methods: Total 100 patients were included in this study which was divided in two groups that is group A &amp; group B. This comparative study conducted in the Dept. of Surgery, LBKMCH, Saharsa. Results: Escherichia coli (52.3%) most common organism were found in post-operative wound infection followed by Staphylococcus aureus (28.5%), CONS (9.5%), Klebsiella spp(4.7%).,Pseudomonas spp. (4.7%).</p> <p>Conclusion: This study conclude that, prophylactic Antibiotics should be given in a justified manner as these play a major role in reducing the post-operative wound infections.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:42:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of amputation risk in diabetic foot ulcer patients infected with Acinetobacter baumannii from a Tertiary Care Centre in South India 2018-12-29T10:23:16+00:00 Rajesh Kesavan Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Sheela Aravind Chandrasekar, Aravind <p><strong>Back ground</strong>: Foot complications are found to be a significant frequent, complication of Diabetes mellitus. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is gradually becoming dominant among Diabetes patients in urban population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical relationship of these gram negative bacteria and their resistance mechanisms in patients with diabetic foot and infected ulcer in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An observational study of 532 patients with infected ulcers in diabetic feet was conducted in Hycare for Wounds a tertiary care centre exclusively dedicated for Wound care and Management between May, 2017 and April, 2018. Processing and identification was done as per standard guidelines. The bacteriological assessment was performed in deep tissue cultures and amputation was considered major when performed above the foot’s middle tarsus.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 532 patients studied 350 were positive for bacterial growth. Commonest&nbsp;&nbsp; isolate was <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MSSA) species, <em>Klebsiella</em> and <em>E. coli</em>. We observed that 14 patients were infected with <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and 50 % were carbapenamase producers.</p> <p><strong>Clinical Outcomes</strong>: Out of 14 patients 6 were major amputees and 5 were minor amputees and the rest 3 patients are under medical management.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Carbapenem-resistant <em>Acinetobacter baumannii </em>is a serious threat to Diabetic patients and can be considered as a risk factor for major amputation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>, Diabetes mellitus, deep tissue cultures, amputation.</p> 2018-12-29T09:46:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Antenatal cases: A Prospective Hospital Based Study 2018-12-29T10:23:17+00:00 Hena Shamim Farooqui <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: UTIs are one of the most commonly occurred and costly medical complication of pregnancy. It is diagnosed in nearly 20% of all pregnancies. It is also responsible for 10% of hospitalization during pregnancy.<br>Methods: Total 125 antenatal patients were observed out of which 32 had urinary tract infection. This study is conducted in Dept. of OBG, LBKMCH, Saharsa.</p> <p>Results: Prevalence in our study, the presence of bacteriuria (32) in well status women is found to be 25.6%.<br>Conclusion: This study concludes that, improper health behaviors and genital hygiene along with increased sexual activity, urination habits, socioeconomic level and dietary habits play significant role in the occurrence of UTI during pregnancy.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:52:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship Between Axial Length and Central Corneal Thickness of Emmetropic Eye with the Height and Body Weight of Young Adults 2018-12-29T10:23:17+00:00 Sapna Raina JK S Parihar Tarun Chaudhary Manvinder Pal Singh Marwaha Bhupinder Kaur Anand <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: The cornea is an important ocular structure involved in the mediation of visual perception. It is the principal refractive surface of the eye and vision can be significantly affected by relatively small changes in its structure and parameters. Measurement of corneal parameters is important in the diagnosis and management of ocular diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma Methods: This study was conducted in the department of ophthalmology in ACMS medical college Delhi.</p> <p>Results: This study showed, height and AL has a positive correlation with a value of +.119, and with weight AL has a weak positive correlation (+.035). CCT has a positive correlation with age (+0.044) but was found to have nil correlation with sex.<br>Conclusion: This study was conclude that, no significant difference in mean CCT and AL was found between male and female subjects.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T09:56:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Nephroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Aloe barbadensis against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats 2018-12-29T10:23:17+00:00 Salman Shamim M A Rana N Arshad Amit Kumar C N Islam <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aloe barbadensis against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.<br>Methods: In the present study 24 albino rats of 120-150gm were taken and these rats were divided into four groups. Group I and II served as vehicle control and negative control groups respectively. While group III (EEAB150) and IV (EEAB300) served as treatment groups, which were treated with 150 and 300mg/kg/day of ethanolic extract of Aloe barbadensis, 1 hour before each dose of gentamicin administration for 8 days. On the 8th day of Gentamicin administration (80mg/kg/day, i.p) blood samples for BUN, serum creatinine, urine creatinine and total protein were taken while the rat kidneys for antioxidant assay and histology were obtained. Results: In group II nephrotoxicity was confirmed by significant elevation of BUN and Serum creatinine while urine creatinine and total protein is significantly decreased compared to group I , while in treatment groups III and IV there is significant attenuation of elevated BUN and S. creatinine while urine creatinine and total protein tends to increase compared to group II. Also, there was significant changes observed in antioxidant markers in the treatment groups III and IV. Improvement in renal function was also confirmed by histology of rat kidneys.</p> <p>Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Aloe barbadensis possess nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T10:04:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Male Fertility : A Prospective Hospital Based Study 2018-12-29T10:23:18+00:00 K Sravan Reddy <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that smoking is very much prevalent among 30% of all 15 years and older men. Approximately 46% of smokers (men) belong to reproductive age (20∼39 years of age). A survey from 187 countries reported that the prevalence of smoking in male smokers was decreased from 41.2% in 1980 to 31.1% in 2012. Though, the number of everyday smokers increased from 721 million in 1980 to 967 million in 2012.</p> <p>Methods: Eighty male cases were included in this study. Out of eighty male cases 51 had low sperm count &amp; 29 cases were normal. The study was conducted in Department of General Medicine, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences, Natekal<br>Results: In the present study, low sperm count was occurred in 36.3% and normal sperm count was occurred in 63.7% cases.</p> <p>Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that smoking has severe effects on male fertility. It decreased the sperm motility and sperm count and causes a further decline with continuation of smoking for more than five years.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T10:09:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seroprevalence & Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern Rajasthan, India 2018-12-29T10:23:18+00:00 Megha Sharma Saroj Golia S K Mehra Manoj V Jani <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major global health problem and India accounts for 10- 15%of the entire pool of HBV carriers of the world. Prevalence of Hepatitis B in pregnant women worldwide is 2.5 to 1.5%, whereas in India it is 2 to 7%. Hepatitis B virus is a double stranded DNA virus. The study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B among the pregnant women in southern part of Rajasthan at a rural based tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, from August 2015 to December 2017.Blood samples were collected from 1011 pregnant women with age ranging from 15- 45 years. Screening of HBsAg was done by RPHA method and positive HBsAg tests were confirmed by ELISA. The data of those , who were found to be positive for HBsAg was statistically analyzed with the chi square tests, and results were considered significant if the p value was &lt;0.05.</p> <p>Results: The overall HBsAg seroprevalence rate was 1.28%, among the total 1011 pregnant women included in this study. HBsAg seroprevalence was highest, (1.64%) in 15-25 years of age group, and 1.71% in the second trimester of pregnancy. The correlations of seroprevalence rate of HBsAg among selected age groups and according to second trimester of pregnancy were not found statistically significant. (p value&gt;0.05)</p> <p>Conclusion: In this study the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen was 1.28%. To prevent vertical transmission in the pregnant women, they should be screened for HBsAg at the first antenatal visit for appropriate management.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T10:14:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Barriers of Treatment-Supporters for DOTS under RNTCP in District Shahdol, India: A Mix-Method Study 2018-12-29T10:23:19+00:00 Rajesh Pandey Akash Ranjan Singh Vikrant Kabirpanti Rajesh Mishra <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: One of the challenges of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been that it has not been able to impart adequate knowledge, satisfactory attitude and desirable practices among treatment-supporters of rural and tribal communities. Present study was planned to explore the knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to Directly Observed treatment (DOT) provision among the treatment-supporters of Shahdol district, Madhya Pradesh in 2018. Methods: Mixed–methods study design of triangulation type was used among 30 community- based treatment-supporters of DOT from Sohagpur tahsil of district Shahdol of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices and three focus-group discussions were used to explore the perceived barriers related to DOT provision. Results: ‘Adequate knowledge’ related to DOT provision was found in 37% of treatment- supporters, while 40% had “satisfactory attitude” and 60 % had “satisfactory practice” related to DOT. The focus-group discussions revealed, ineffective training, lack of supportive supervision, insecure monetary incentive, distant Public Health Institution/Designated Microscopic Center, language barrier and patient related stigma to TB disease as main perceive challenges related to DOT.</p> <p>Conclusion: Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory attitude and practice related to DOT provision among treatment-supporters. Effective training, making services accessible to patient, making RNTCP form in Hindi language and strengthening of honorarium disbursement mechanism are urgently required.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T10:18:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality of Life after Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis at Tertiary Care Hospital 2019-02-18T18:20:27+00:00 Kovuri Venkata Krishna Sudhakar <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a pathogenic disease of infection commonly affected the ear, nose and throat. Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) has a serious negatively impact over quality of life of patients. Quality of life, nature of job and environmental conditions are the primary reasons of spread of rhinosinusitis. Most of the symptoms of CRS are not life threatening but generally these leads to poor quality of life by affecting the efficiency of individuals.</p> <p>Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of ENT in tertiary care hospital among the 50 patients with clinical presentation, endoscopy examination and CT-scan changes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without a polyp. The history of the patients were taken and then the different ENT examinations were done like endoscopic examination of the nose and CT-scan imaging. All the surgeries like uncinectomy, middle meatal antrostomy, anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, or opening of the sphenoid sinus were performed under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation and hypotensive technique. All the patients were regularly given the postoperative antibiotic and nasal steroid treatments and reviewed regularly. Sinonasal Assessment Questionnaire - 11 (SNAQ-11) were used for the collection of data because this questionnaire contains 11 questions covering most of the symptoms of sinonasal diseases. Results: ‘Total 50 patients were included in this study among them 32 (64%) were male and 18 (36%) were females. All the patients was between 18-60 years among them 16 (32%) were the age group 25-35 years, followed by age group 35-45 years 14 (28%). The most common preoperative complaint of the patients was nasal obstruction (100%) patients, followed by nasal congestion (96%), facial pain (94%), running nose (90%), anterior nasal discharge (76%), and least complaint was sneezing (28%) and earache (28%).</p> <p>Conclusion: The study concludes, this study shows the significant outcome of improvement in the quality of life of patients in all the three subgroups of chronic rhinosinusitis which can be assessed by using SNOT-11 questionnaire. The Functional endoscopic sinus surgery performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has statistically significant with the association of improvement in the QoL after twenty 24 month follow up. There is paucity of data so more studies are required to the scientific evidence gathered on the effectiveness of surgery offered to our population, as seen in studies performed in other countries.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2018-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##