Antimicrobial Activities of Daucus Carota Seeds on Selected Pathogenic Micro-organisms
Background: The antibacterial/antifungal toxicity of Daucus carota (carrot) seeds was evaluated using selected multi-drug resistant bacteria and yeast of clinical origin. Methods: The active constituents of the Daucus carota seeds were extracted using conventional Plant Tissue Homogenization method using cold distilled water, Ethanol and Methanol as solvents. Varying concentrations (5-250 mg/ml) of the three extracts were assayed for antimicrobial activity against the selected isolates- Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Candida albicans; the agar well diffusion method was used. The antibiogram profile of the organisms was also obtained through disc diffusion method. Results: Similar activity was observed in the methanolic and ethanolic extracts while cold distilled water showed no activity on any of the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility results showed that the isolates used are highly multi-drug resistant. Ofloxacin exhibited the most pronounced activity against all the isolates. Gentamicin and erythromycin both showed activity on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Lower concentrations of both extracts presented no inhibitory effects on the test organisms, thus resulting in high MIC values recorded for both extracts. Also, the extracts showed no bactericidal action against the isolates. Conclusions: Observations from this research therefore affirm that Daucus carota seeds possess antimicrobial properties that may be explored as a source of future antimicrobial compounds.
2. Vainio H. Vegetables and organosulfur compounds importance. Environmental Health Prospect. 2003: 893-902. Available from http://www.jeb.co.in/journal
3. James M. Carrot classification and definition. [Date updated; cited date]. Available from http://www.fda.gov
4. Gupta. Daucus carota. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2008: 32(4): 587–605.
5. Rossi PG, Bao L, Luciani A, et al. (E)-Methylisoeugenol and Elemicin: Antibacterial Components of Daucus carota L. Essential Oils against Campylobacter jejuni. Journal of Agricultural and Food-Chemistry. 2007: 55:7332-7336. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf070674u
6. Gilbert M. Introduction to nutrition in carrot. Developmental Biology in Plant. 6th ed. 2002: (6) 171-178.
7. Singh K, Singh N, Chandy A, Maniganha A. In Vivo Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Daucus carota Seeds in Experimental Animals. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012: 2: 385-388.
8. Rajesh B, Rattan LI. Essentials of Medical Microbiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd. 4th ed. New Delhi 110002, India; 2008: 500.
9. Doughari JS. Phytochemicals: Extraction Methods, Basic Structures and Mode of Action as Potential Chemotherapeutic Agents. Department of Microbiology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Yola Nigeria; 2012: 1-10.
10. Nouri M, Khaki A, Azar FF, Rashidi MR. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats. Yakhteh Medical Journal; 2009: 11: 327-333.
11. Da Silva Dias, J. Nutritional and Health Benefits of Carrots and Their Seed Extracts. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2014: 5: 2147-2156. DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.522227
12. Adetitun DO, Araoye HK, Akinyanju JA, Anibijuwon II. The antimicrobial effects of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera on selected clinical bacterial isolates. Agrosearch. 2013: 1(13): 98-99.
13. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 26th ed. CLSI (suppl M100S). ISBN:1-56238-923-8
14. Anibijuwon II, Duyilemi OP, Onifade AK. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf of Aspila africana on Some Pathogenic Organisms of Clinical Origin. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 2010: 24 (1): 2048-2055.
15. Nwidu LL, Nwafor PA, Vilegas W. Antimicrobial Activity of Carpolobia lutea extracts and Fractions. African Journals Traditional Complement Alternative Medicine. 2012: 9 (3): 323-328.
16. Peñalver P, Huerta B, Borge C, Astorga R, Romero R, Perea A. Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family. APMIS. 2005;113:1–6.
17. Kalemba D, Kunicka A. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2003: 10(10): 813–829
18. Imamu X, Yili A, Maksimov V, Veshkurova ON, Salikhov SI. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Daucus carota sativa seeds. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2007: 43 (4): 495
19. Salman TS, Khan RA, Shukla I. Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa linn. Seeds against multiple antibiotics resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research. 2016:2(3): 96-99.