Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Prospective Study
Background: Cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis is rare in premenopausal women; the incidence steeply increases after menopause. Unresolved issue remains if these changes are caused rather by chronological aging or by menopause accompanied by decrease in the estrogen concentration. Methods: This study was conducted during the period of 2 year in one of the rural health centre in Sothern India. This is observational, cross-sectional prospective study. a total of 400 consecutive postmenopausal women (cessation of menstruation for 1 year) were recruited. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.25 years, mean number of menopausal symptoms was 8.97 ± 3.68, and mean duration since menopause was (MDSM = 3.10 years). Fatigue, lack of energy (80%), cold hand and feet, rheumatology-related symptoms (70%) cold sweats, weight gain, irritability and nervousness (60%), palpitation of heart, excitable/anxiety (40%) each were common complaints. Hypertension was diagnosed or a person was a known hypertensive (72%). Diabetes was diagnosed, or a person was known diabetic in 37%. BMI 25 kg/m2 in 65%. Truncal obesity with WHR > 0.8 in 59% females, whereas abdominal obesity with waist size >88 cm was in 54% women.
Conclusions: In postmenopausal women from rural areas high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and other risk factors.
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