Neurological Manifestations of Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review

  • Naseem Ahmed Department of Pathology, Dow Medical College Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Lahiba Rasheed Khan Dow Medical College, Karachi Pakistan
  • Rabia Rasool Dow Medical College, Karachi Pakistan
  • Amna Imran Dow Medical College, Karachi Pakistan
  • Maria Noor Dow Medical College, Karachi Pakistan
Keywords: Neurological complications, SARS-Cov-2, Neurological signs, Neurological symptoms, Covid-19, Novel Coronavirus.

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic causing virus, SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the year 2019 from China. Since then, it has inflicted millions of people globally. Common presentations include cough, fever, body ache, fatigue, and shortness of breath, whereas few people might not develop any symptom. The main target of this virus is respiratory system; precisely it attacks the ACE-2 receptors of alveolar cells of lungs. ACE-2 receptors are also found in heart, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, testis, and brain; hence involvement of these organs is also seen with this disease. An emerging discovery of invasion of nervous system by this virus has impelled researchers to investigate and understand the neurological mechanisms and features of COVID-19. The virus can affect Central as well as Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral nervous system implications are not critical and include hypersomnia, ageusia, Guillain barre syndrome, paresthesia, skeletal muscle injury and cranial nerve involvement, whereas in central nervous system, dizziness, headache, acute cerebrovascular disease, altered level of consciousness, transverse myelitis, acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy, encephalopathy, encephalitis, epilepsy and ataxia can develop. Neurological manifestations are particularly seen with severely ill COVID patients.

In this article, we present a comprehensive review of prevalence of various CNS and PNS symptoms in COVID-19, risk factors, investigations, management, and prognosis related to these. This will aid the physicians and neurologists in better understanding the course of this illness and the current statistics of neurological presentations, crucial for handling the disease.

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Published
2021-12-31
How to Cite
1.
Ahmed N, Khan LR, Rasool R, Imran A, Noor M. Neurological Manifestations of Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res [Internet]. 2021Dec.31 [cited 2022Jan.27];7(4):PA1-PA9. Available from: https://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/766