Maternal and Fetal Outcome in First Stage versus Second Stage Caesarean Section
Background: Caesarean Section (CS) is the most commonly performed abdominal operation in women all over the world. CS can be performed before labour or during the first and second stages of labour. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing maternal and fetal outcome in first stage versus second stage caesarean section.
Materials & Methods: 100 caesarean sections were studied in the present study, out of which, 60 sections were done in first stage of labour (Group A) and the remaining 40 sections were performed in the second stage of labour (Group B). Assessment of signs for first stage Caesarean section, signs for second stage Caesarean section was done. Assessment of intra-operative complications was done. Neonatal outcome was assessed. Presence of any adverse effects to the mother and baby which developed during their hospital stay was also recorded. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. Chi-square test was used for assessment of level of significance.
Results: Significantly higher incidence of complications was seen among subjects of group B in comparison to group A. Postpartum hemorrhage was found to be present in 5 subjects of group A and 29 subjects of group B. Blood transfusion requirement was seen in 7 patients of group A and 20 patients of group B. postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 patients of group A and 8 patients of group B.In the present study, neonatal complications were significantly higher in subjects of group B in comparison to group A. Respiratory distress was seen in 23 neonates of group A while it was seen in 29 neonates of group B. No mortality was seen in group A while 4 neonates died in group B.
Conclusion: Subjects in the second stage (delivered by caesarean section) are associated with a higher risk of complications. Therefore; it is suggested that second stage caesarean should preferably be performed by an experienced and skilled obstetrician.
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