Status of Lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients of A, B, O and AB Blood Groups
Background: Hypertension is the most common illness of circulatory system and is a worldwide health challenge affecting both developed and developing nations. The development of hypertension is a multi-factorial process and the risk factors for its development are many such as genetic factors, obesity, age & sex factors, salt sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia & insulin resistance, environmental factors, socio economic imbalances, free radicals/reactive Oxygen species, oxidative stress, blood groups etc. The role of blood groups in the etiology of essential hypertension has long been suspected.
Methods: The study design was a cohort study consisting of 15 hypertensive patients of the A, B, AB and O each. Anthropometric parameters such as Blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and Body Mass Index (BMI) and Biochemical parameters such as Blood grouping, Blood Glucose levels, Haemoglobin levels, Lipid profile, which included Triglycerides, Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL and VLDL cholesterol, were measured using standardized methods. The various parameters were compared between hypertensives of the various blood groups and statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Mean and SD of each group was calculated, and Unpaired student’s t-test was applied (P < 0.05 considered as significant).
Results: When BMI was compared among hypertensive groups we observed significant increased level of BMI in group A as compared to group O hypertensives. (10.36%; P<0.05). While comparing SBP between hypertensive groups we observed significant raised level of SBP in group A as compared to group B (9.38%; P<0.01) and O (10.45%; P<0.01). Similarly, DBP was found to be increased significantly in group A as compared to group B ((5.34%; P<0.05) and O hypertensive patients (5.06%; P<0.001). LDL-C and HDL-C were non-significantly altered in these groups however value of VLDL-C was found increased in group A as compared to group O hypertensives (20.38%; P< 0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significantly higher SBP and DBP in the hypertensives of the A blood group as compared to the hypertensives of the B and O blood groups. It also found increased levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C along with decreased levels of HDL-C was in hypertensive patients predominantly in group A and AB hypertensive. The hypertensive patients of A blood group have shown a statistically significant increase in BMI as compared to hypertensives of the other blood groups.
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