Retrospective Evaluation of Patients with Xerophthalmia Visited in Hospital
Background: The condition of xeropthalmia refers to the spectrum of ocular manifestations generally because of the vitamin A deficiency. Signs and symptoms include those involving impaired sensitivity of retina to light generally termed as night blindness. In order of their appearance and severity the epithelial disruption of cornea and conjunctiva for example conjunctival xerosis, bitot spots, corneal xerosis and keratomalacia.
Methods: A detailed and elaborated study was conducted in the department ophthalmology, Swatantra Sainani late Dr. Mangal Singh District Hospital, Dholpur, Rajasthan, India. A total of 54 patients were studied and involved in the study over a period of 6 months. All patients were divided into three categories of mild, moderate and severe xeropthalmia. Patients from 13 years to 55 years of age were selected for the study analysis. An informed consent was obtained from each patient or from the guardian. All patients were asked to get a vitamin A test done.
Results: A total of 54 patients so selected for the study analysis, 34 were female (63%) and 20 were male(37%).(Graph1). Accordingtotheclinicalvaluesandseverity23patientswerediagnosedwith mild xeropthalmia with slight difficulty in night vision and clinical values of 0.25-0.30 mg/L, 19 patients were diagnosed with moderate xeropthalmia with values of 0.20-0.24 mg/L and 12 patients were diagnosed with severe xeropthalmia with values of below 0.20mg/L of vitamin A in blood at any given time.
Conclusion: Xeropthalmia can occur in any age group and especially in pre school-age children, adolescents and pregnant women. However, children are at higher risk of vitamin A deficiency and xeropthalmia, owing to their greater vitamin A requirements for growth.
2. McLaren DS, Kraemer K, editors. Manual on vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD), third edition.
3. 3. Sommer A. Field guide to the detection and control of xerophthalmia, 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1982
4. Sommer A, Hussaini G, Muhilal, Tarwotjo I, Susanto D, Saroso JS. History of night blindness: a simple tool for xerophthalmia screening. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33:887–91.
5. DeLuca LM. Vitamin A. In: Deluca HF, editor. Handbook of lipid research, the fat soluble vitamins, vol. 2. New York: Plenum Press; 1978:1–67.
6. Stephenson S. On epithelial xerosis of the conjunctiva. Trans Opththalmol Soc UK. 1896;18:55–102.
7. Spence JC. A clinical study of nutritional xerophthalmia and night- blindness. Arch Dis Child. 1931;6:17–26.
8. Indicators for assessing vitamin A deficiency and their application in monitoring and evaluation intervention programmes.
9. Control of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. Report of a joint WHO/UNICEF/USAID/Helen Keller International/IVACG meeting.
10. Sommer A. Vitamin A deficiency and its consequences. A field guide to detection and control, 3rd ed. Geneva
11. Frederichsen C, Edmund C. Studies of hypovitaminosis A. III. Clinical experiments in the vitamin A balance in children after various diets.
12. Sommer A, Hussaini G, Muhilal, Tarwotjo I, Susanto D, Saroso JS. History of night blindness: a simple tool for xerophthalmia screening.