Study of Metformin Effect on Antimicrobial Property
Background: Metformin is believed that marvelous survivor for diabetes and coined as glucose eater among all oral hypoglycemic agents. Antibiotic Resistance is the major issue which compromising the treatment of bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic infection. The present study showed that effectiveness of metformin drug on microbes.
Methods: This study conducted in the department of pharmacology in the carrier institute of medical sciences over a period of six month.
Results: Antimicrobial activity of metformin was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi using disk diffusion technique of Kierby baur methods. CIP & AK was used as standard antibiotics. Antioxidant potentiality of metformin was investigated by DPPH scavenging activity. Metformin active at 500 μg/ml, showed very good antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial strains with an average zone of inhibition of 12-15mm. Conclusions: Metformin demonstrated a pronounced inhibitory action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an organism which is known to be multidrug resistant. The tested fungi are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The tested drug showed very good antifungal activity with an average 13-17 mm zone of inhibition.
2. Jette E. Kristiansen,Oliver Hendricks, ThomasDelvin, Trine S. Butterworth, Lone Aagaard, Jørn B. Christensen, Vivian C. Flores and Hendrik Keyzer. Reversal of resistance in microorganisms by help of non-antibiotics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.2007; 59 ( 6 ) : 1271-1279.
3. Kristiansen, J. E. Antimicrobial activity of nonantibiotics.ASM NEWS.1991; 57:135–139.
4. Kristiansen, J. E. Antimicrobial activity of nonantibiotics. Reports from a congress on the antimicrobial effect of drugs other than antibiotics on bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other organisms. Copenhagen, May, 1990. Acta Pathology Microbiology et Immunology Scandinavia (APMIS), Suppl. 1992 ;100 :7–14.
5. Cederlund, H. & Mårdh, P. A. Antibacterial activities ofnon-antibiotic drugs. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1993; 32:355–365.
6. Kristiansen, J. E. H. Chlorpromazine: non-antibiotics with antimicrobial activity—new insights in managing resistance. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs.1993; 2: 587–591.
7. Kristiansen, J. E., Amaral, L. & Thomsen, V. F. The reversal of antibiotic resistance by phenothiazines. In Abstract 18th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Stockholm, Sweden. 1993. Abstract 510, p. 65.
8. Amaral, L., Kristiansen, J. E. & Thomsen, V. F. The effect of chlorpromazine on the cell envelope of sensitive and resistant bacteria. In Abstract of the 18th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Stockholm, Sweden. 1993, Abstract 493 p. 65.
9. Dastidar SG, Saha PK, Sanyamat B, Chakrabarty AN. Antibacterial activities of Ambodryl and Benadryl. Journal of Applied Bacteria. 1976; 41: 209-214.
10. Chakrabarty AN, Acharya DP, Niyogi DK, Dastidar SG. Drug interaction of some non-conventional antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents with special reference to Promethazine. Indian Journal of Medicine & Research. 1989; 89: 233-237
11. Dash SK,DastidarSG, Chakrabarty AN.Antimicrobial activity of Promazine Hydrochloride. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1977; 15: 324-326.
12. Molnár J, Mandi Y, Király J. Antibacterial effect of some phenothiazine compounds and R-factor elimination by chlorpromazine. Acta Microbiology. Acad Sci Hung 1976; 23: 45-54.
13. Dastidar SG, Mondal U, Niyogi S, Chakrabarty AN. Antibacterial property of methyl-DOPA and Development of cross-resistance in m-DOPA mutants. Indian Journal of Medicine & Research .1986; 84:142-147.
14. Chakrabarty AN, Molnár J, Dastidar SG, Motohashi N.(Eds) Non-antibiotics: A new class of unrecognised antimicrobics: National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi. 1998.
15. Cusi K, DeFronzo RA: Metformin: a review of its metabolic effects. Diabetes Reviews 1998; 6:89–131.
16. Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Paolisso G. Oxidative stress and diabetic vascular complications. Diabetes Care. 1996; 19:257–267.
17. Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. The role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. 1999; 3:277–284.
18. Soret MG, Dulin WE, Mathews J, Gerritsen GC. Morphologic abnormalities observed in retina, pancreas, and kidney of diabetic Chinese hamsters. Diabetologia. 1974; 10:567–579.
19. Cristina L, Roberto L, Stefano DP. β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current. Diabetes Report. 2008; 8:179–184.
20. Cook MN, Girman CJ, Stein PP, Alexander CM, Holman RR. Glycemic control continues to deteriorate after sulfonylureas are added to metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28:995–1000.
21. Kristiansen, J. E. The antimicrobial activity of psychotherapeutic drugs and stereo-isomeric analogues.(Thesis, DMSC).Danish Medical Bulletin. 1990; 37, 165–82.
22. Molnàr, J., Ren, J., Kristiansen, J. E. & Nakamura, M. J. Effects of some tricyclic psychopharmacons and structurally related compounds on motility of Proteus vulgaris. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek . 1992; 62 , 315–320.
23. Karadag A, Ozcelik B, Saner S. Review of Methods to Determine Antioxidant Capacities. Food Analysis Methods. 2009; 2: 41‐60. 23.
24. Esteghamati A, Eskandari D, Mirmiranpour H, Noshad S, Mousavizadeh M, Hedayati M, Nakhjavani M. Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2013 Apr; 32(2):179-85.