Study of Carpal Bone Ossification by Using Radiological Method for Age Estimation of Infant and Paediatric Group in North Indian Population
Background: Ossification of carpal bones forms the most significant aspect of development in clinical sciences and in medical jurisprudence. Important factors influencing the process of ossification include age, sex, heredity, the state of nourishment and particular geographical region may not be exactly similar to that in another area. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the average age of appearance of the ossification centre of Indian population in comparison with western data. Materials & Methods: Present work was performed in 200 healthy individual of both sexes of which date of birth proof was present . X-ray of carpal bones were taken for presence or absence of centre of ossification of the individual carpal bones.
Results: In the present study 102(51%)males and 98 (49%) females were taken who had accurate birth certificate indicating their age from < 6 month to 12 year. Variation in the appearance of centre of ossification in carpal bones shows influence of race, climate, nutritional, and geographical factors. Conclusion: Ossification of carpal bones in the population of North India occur 1-2 year later then Europeans and appearance of the ossification centre is earlier in females than males .
2. Kamakar RN. Forensic medicine and toxicology oral, practical &M.C.Q. 2nd edn. Academic publishers. Kolkata, 2007:25-6.
3. Pryor,J.W. The Anatomical Record ,1:84-88,1907.
4. Pryor,J.W., Am. J. Phy.Anthrop.,24:273-99,1928.
5. CLARK’S Positioning in Radiography .by Taylor & Francis group ,13th edition.CRC press, New York.51-68, 2016
6. Standring S. Chapter-55, Wrist and hand, Gray’s Anatomy, The Anatomical Basis of clinical practice, London, Elsevier Limited ,41 Edition,2016.869.
7. Hassan M.& Narayan D, Ind.Jour.Med.Rec.,51:917-20,1963.
8. Francis, C.C.et al,Am. J.Phys.Anthrop.,24:273-99,1939.
9. Peterson, R.S. Jour. Anat.,64:28-46,1929.
10. Srivastav A., Saraswat P.K. et al JIAFM 26(4):132-135,2004.
11. Kumar A., Kumar S.et al. JRFMT 2(2):1-7,2016.
12. Garg K. Chapter-2, Bones of upper limb, BD Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy, New Delhi, CBS Publisher,6th Edition,2013.23-26
13. Davies DA and Parson Of Anatomy 1927;62.58.
14. Sawtell,R.O., Am. J. Dis. Child,37:61-87,1929.
15. Nandy A. Identification of Individual, Principles of Forensic Medicine Including Toxicology, Kolkata, NCBA(P)Ltd,3rd Edition ,2010.124.
16. Pillay VV.Chapter-4,Identification ,Text book of Forensic Medicine &Toxicology ,Paras Medical Publisher.18th Edition ,2017.90.
17. K.S. Narayan ,O.P.Murty et al.Ch-4,Identification ,The Essential of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ,New Delhi,Jaypee,33rd Edition ,2014.75.