Evaluation of Osteoporosis by Bone Mineral Density in Men: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care Centre
Background: Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density and that leads to an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis is highly prevalent, with an estimated 30 million women diagnosed to have osteoporosis. A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are present in a section of bone. The absolute amount of bone as measured by bone mineral density (BMD) testing generally correlates with bone strength and its ability to bear weight. Materials & Methods: Retrospective study was done in 320 male patients, department of Orthopedics at Govt. Medical College, Nagpur, India during the 6-month study. The BMD estimation of these patients was done by quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneal bone and the analysis done on the basis of T–scores. Results: 320 patients were included in the study from department of Orthopedics, at Govt. Medical College, Nagpur, India. Patients were in the age group of 20-75 yrs. Among these 20.62% (n=66) were between 20-35yrs, 50.62% (n=162) between 36-50yrs and 24.37%(n=78) between 51-65 yrs. Commonest presenting symptom in the study population was Backache which was 61.87% (n=198). 32.81% (105) presented with generalized bone pain and 11.87% (38) patients had a history of fracture after trivial trauma. Of the 320 patients included in the study, 48.43% (n=155) were osteoporotic, 30.62% (n=98) were osteopenia and severe osteoporosis 11.25%. Majority of the osteoporotic patients fell in the age group of 36-50 yrs. Conclusion: Our study shows that the osteoporosis and osteopenia is more common in males in the age group of 36-50 yrs. Early detection and prompt treatment is required to prevent pathological fractures. Quantitative ultrasonography is a standout amongst the best apparatuses for early recognition of osteopenia and osteoporosis as this is practical, needs radiation introduction and yields great outcomes, tantamount to other indicative devices like DEXA check.
2. Glu¨ er CC, Cummings SR, Bauer DC, Stone K, Pressman A,Mathur A, et al. Osteoporosis: association of recent fractures with quantitative US findings. Radiology 1996; 199:725–32
3. WHO Study Group. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for Postmenopausal osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series, World Health Organization, 1994; Geneva.
4. Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Gluer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M. Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: State of the art. J Bone Miner Res. 1996; 11:707-730.
5. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, D de Takats, Pande K. Clinical assessment of Bone Mass, Quality and Architecture. Osteoporos Int. 1999;
6. Pande KC. Prevalence of low bone mass in healthy Indian population. J Ind Med Assoc. 2002; 1000:598-600.
7. Unni J, Garg R, Pawar R. Bone mineral density in women above 40 years. J Mid-life Health. 2010; 1:19-22.
8. Acharya S, Fuchs SC, Donato G, Bastos CA, Spritzer PM. Physical, psychological, and menopause-related symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders in a community-based sample of Brazilian premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2000; 19:355–60.
9. Low SL, Goh JCH, DasDe S et al. Calcaneal ultrasound in males and females: Normative data and relationship to DXAOsteoporosInt 2000; 2: S-57-209
10. J-D LIN, MD, J-F CHEN, MD, H-Y CHANG, MD and C HO, MD -Evaluation of bone mineral density by quantitative ultrasound of bone in 16 862 subjects during routine health examination -The British Journal of Radiology, 74 (2001), 602–606 E 2001
11. Gandhi A, Shukla A. Evaluation of BMD of women above 40 years of age. J Obstet Gynaecol India 2005; 55:265-7.
12. Schneider M, Weller A, Vaisman N, Kreitler S. The relationship of depression, anxiety and stress with low bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Arch Osteoporos. 2002; 7:247–55.
13. Iketani T, Kiriike N, Nakanishi S, Nakasuji T. Effects of weight gain and resumption of menses on reduced bone density in patients with anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry. 1995 Apr 15; 37(8):521-7.
14. Pearce G, Bradney M, Hendrich E. Delmas P.D. Harding A, Seeman E, et al. (1996) Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: studies in active prepubertal and retired gymnasts. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 13, 500-507.
15. Michelson D, Stratakis C, Hill L, Reynolds J, Galliven E, Chrousos G, Gold P. Bone mineral density in women with depression. N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 17; 335(16):1176-81.
16. Duan Y, Turner CH, Kim BT, Seeman E. Sexual dimorphism in vertebral fragility is more the result of gender differences in age-related bone gain than bone loss. J Bone Miner Res. 1997; 16:2267–2275.
17. JPS WALIA, A SINGH, AC GUPTA, B SINGH, AK WALIA, D KUMAR -Assessment Of Quantitative Ultrasound Densitometry In 100 Persons With Fractures Due To Osteoporosis-Ind J RadiolImag 2006 16:4:597-601