Incidence of Adverse Drug Events among Hospitalized Patients in Surgical Wards: A Hospital Based Study

  • H. S. Sahwal Principal Specialist (General Surgery), Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India.
  • Sunil Upmanyu Principal Specialist (General Surgery), Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India.
Keywords: adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, Surgery, Monitoring


Background: Until today the exact etiopathologic agent responsible for clinical toxicity in uremia could not be singled out. A parallel may be drawn between the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the evaluation of uremia and the use of electrocardiogram (ECG) in the evaluation of hyperkalemia. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate EEG changes & correlation of biochemical analysis in uremic patients.

Materials & Methods: A prospective study done on 25 cases of uremia due to varied etiology were selected from the wards of general hospital, Dungarpur, Rajasthan. The cases were diagnosed on the basis of the criteria laid down by Jean Hamburger, Richet G. et al (1968)3. Electroencephalographic tracing of all patients were made by an 8 channel EEG machine. A routine examination of hemoglobin, ESR, TLC, DLC, Complete urine examination with references to 24 hours urine volume, specific gravity and pH was done. Biochemical estimation of blood urea, serum Creatinine, sodium and potassium was also done.

Results: All the EEG showed diminished alpha activity, slowing in less than 6 & 6-8 HZ range and significant low voltage indeterminate activity more in precentral montages. In all the 9 drowsy patients the predominant background activity consisted of slow waves (less than 8 HZ) which were more in precentral as compared to postcentral montages. Correlation of serum Creatinine & EEG was predominant low voltage in determinant activity is seen in all group and serum sodium & potassium was showed that the abnormally is more marked in precentral leads.

Conclusion: We concluded that there was significant more slowing (theta & Delta waves) in precentral leads in uremic patients irrespective of biochemical and clinical parameters which has not been mentioned by earlier workers.


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How to Cite
Sahwal H, Upmanyu S. Incidence of Adverse Drug Events among Hospitalized Patients in Surgical Wards: A Hospital Based Study. International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research [Internet]. 21Mar.2018 [cited 22Apr.2018];4(1):134-6. Available from: