Serum Magnesium Levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with the Microvascular Complications

  • Anju Kochar Principal Specialist (General Medicine), M.G. Hospital, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India
  • Radheshyam Shrotriya Principal Specialist (Pediatrics), Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India.
Keywords: : Hypomagnesemia, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Microvascular complications, Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Background: Hypomagnesemia has been associated with type 2 diabetic mellitus and is known to be a risk factor for microvascular complications. This study aimed to evaluate serum magnesium levels in patients with type 2 DM and correlate them with microvascular complications.

Materials & Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on150 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were admitted in the Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India. Serum magnesium levels were assessed in all the diabetic patients and they were also tested for presence of microvascular complications.

Results: In the present study majority of the patients (71.33%) were males and male to female ratio was 2.48:1. The commonest age group was > 60 years (50%) and the mean age was 60.38 ± 10.81 years. The duration of diabetes in 45.33% of the patients was between 6 to 10 years and mean duration was 7.43 ± 4.11 years. Hypomagnesemia was associated with microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy (p<0.050). Also, association was found between serum magnesium levels glycaemic control and duration of diabetes (p<0.050).

Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is widely prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major risk factor for the development microvascular complications that is, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.


Key words: Hypomagnesemia, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Microvascular complications, Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Download data is not yet available.


1. Huizinga MM, Rothman RL. Addressing the diabetes pandemic: A comprehensive approach. Indian J Med Res 2006;124:481-4.
2. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.
3. Sicree R, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. In: Gan D, eds. Diabetes Atlas. International Diabetes Federation. 3rd ed., Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2006. p. 15-103.
4. Koda-Kimble MA, Carlisle BA. Diabetes mellitus. In: Young LY, Koda- Kimble MA, Kradjan WA, Guglielmo BJ, eds. Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs. 6th ed., Vancouver (WA): Applied therapeutics 1995; 48:481-5.
5. Mooradian AD, Failla M, Hoogwerf B, Maryniuk M, Wylie-Rosett J. Selected vitamins and minerals in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:464-79.
6. Walter RM, Bhandarkar SD. Trace elements in diabetes mellitus. J Postgrad Med 1981;27:129-32.
7. American Diabetes Associates. Clinical Practice Recommendations: Diabetes Care 2004;6:1-16.
8. Dasgupta A, Sarma D, Saikia UK. Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocr Metab 2012;16:1000-3
9. Pham PC, Pham PM, Pham SV, Miller JM, Pham PT. Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:366-73.
10. Saris NEL, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A. Magnesium: An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects. Clin Chem Acta 2000;294:1-26.
11. Elamin A, Tuvemo T. Magnesium and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1990;10:203-9.
12. Grafton G, Baxter MA, Sheppard MC. Effects of magnesium on sodium dependant inositol transport. Diabetes 1992;41:35-9.
13. Puri M, Gujaral M, Nayyar SB. Comparative study of serum zinc, magnesium and copper levels among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without microangiopathic complications. Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Science 2013;3(6)L274-8.
14. Swain RP, Subudhi BB, Mahapatra AK, Bolapreddi V. Bridging Between Disease, Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2015;7(2):212-28.
15. Kopelman PG, Hitman GA. Naturally occurring anti-hyper glycemic and anti-dyslipidemia agents. The Lancet 1998;5:352.
16. Shi Y, Frank B. The global implications of diabetes and cancer. The Lancet 1947;9933:383.
17. Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. William’s text book of endocrinology. 12th ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier; 1996.
18. Vos T, Flaxman AD, Nghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. A systemic analysis for the global burden of disease study. The Lancet 2010;380(9859):2163.
19. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLOS Med 2006;3(11):442.
20. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diab Res Clin Pract 2010;87:4-14.
21. Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 2007;125:217-30.
22. Badyal A, Pandey R, Sodi KS, Singh J. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium in Patients with Complicated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2014;04(07):596-9.
Choudhary R, Thanna RC, Vamne A, Pathak S. A Retrospective Study of Serum Magnesium In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Correlation With Strategy Of Treatment. GJBB 2015;4(2):172-4.
How to Cite
Kochar A, Shrotriya R. Serum Magnesium Levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with the Microvascular Complications. International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research [Internet]. 21Mar.2018 [cited 22May2018];4(1):127-9. Available from: