Ultrasonographic Study on Size and Echotexture of Spleen in Normal and Diseased Adult Population in Kosi Region of Bihar
Background: The spleen is the largest organ in the reticuloendothelial system. A number of disorders are accompanied by altered spleen size, including infective, infestation, infiltrative, immunologic, and malignant conditions. Ultrasonography affords a useful noninvasive role in evaluating the spleen and used for best advantage, it can demonstrate the existence and composition of splenic masses, disruption of splenic texture or outline, progressive changes in masses and the size of the spleen.
Materials & Methods: 166 subjects were selected from the Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Radiology, from a tertiary care teaching hospital and from the other clinics of Kosi region like Purnea, Araria and Madhepura districts during the period of June 2016 to May 2017.
Results: The splenic length decreased at a slow rate up to the age of 50 years after which it decreased rapidly in both sexes. The splenic length was greater in males than in female in each age group. Mean splenic width in the first age group i.e. 21 30 years was 60.9 ± 8.4 mm, in the second age group i.e. 31 - 40 years was 56.4 ± 7.9 mm, in the third age group i.e. 41 – 50 years was 46.6 ± 4.3 mm, and in the fourth age group i.e. 51 – 60 years was observed to be 44.6 ± 8.0 mm.
Conclusion: The ultrasonography affords a useful noninvasive role in evaluating the spleen, it can demonstrate existence and composition of splenic masses, disruption of splenic texture or outline; and also progressive changes in masses and size of spleen.
2. Berman M. Spleen. In: Kawamura DM editor. Diagnostic medical sonography. A guide to clinical practice. Abdomen and superficial structures 2 nd ed. Philadelphia. Lippincott-Raven 1997; 263-88.
3. Dommerby H,Stangerup M,Hancke S . Hepatosplenomegaly in infectious mononucleosis assessed by ultrasonic scanning. J Laryngol Otol 1986; 100:573-9.
4. Hosey RG, Kriss V, Uhi TL, Difiori J, Hecht S, Dennis WY. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Splenic Enlargement in Athletes with Acute Infectious Mononucleosis. Br.J Sports Med 2008; 42(12): 974-977.
5. Dick R. et al. The liver and spleen. Text book of Radiology and Imaging London Churchill Livingstone 1998;981-1028.
6. Konus O.L, Ozdemir A, Akkaya A, Erbas G, Celik H, Isik, S. Normal liver spleen and kidney dimensions in neonats, infants, and children evaluation with sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998;171(6): 1693-1698.
7. Friis H, Ndhlovu P, Mduluza T, Kaondera K, Franke D, Vennerval BJ, Christensen N,O Doehring E. Ultrasonography organometry liver and spleen dimensions among children in Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health 1996; 1(2):183-190.
8. Al-Iman O, Suleiman A, Khuleifat S. Ultrasound assessment of normal splenic length and spleen-to-kidney ratio in children. East Mediterr Health J 2000; 6: 514–516
9. Mustapha Z, Tahir A, Tukur M, Bukar M, Lee WK. Sonographic determination of the normal spleen size in an adult African population. Eur J Radiol 2010; 75 :133-135.
10. Harris A, Kamishima T , Hao HY, Kato F, Omatsu T, Onodera Y, et al. Splenic volume on computed tomography utilizing automatically contouring software and its relationship with age,gender,and anthropometric parameters. Eur j Radiol. 2010;75:e97-101.
11. Kebede T, Adamassie D. Spleen length in childhood with ultrasound normal based on age at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. Ethiop Med J 2009; 47:49-53.
12. Niederau C, Sonnenberg A, Muller J.E, Erckenbrecht J.F, Scholten T, Fritsch W.P. Sonographic measurements of the normal liver, spleen, pancreas, and portal vein. Radiology 1983; 149(2) : 537-540.
13. Kataoka M, Nakata Y, Maeda T, Hosoya S, Nishizaki H, Ono Y, et al. Ultrasonographic analysis of splenomegaly in patients with sarcoidosis 1990; 28:750-755.
14. Loftus W.K, Metreweli C, Normal splenic size in a Chinese population. J ultrasound Med. 1997; 16(5) : 345-347.
15. Frank K, Linhart P, Kortsik C, Wohlenberg H. Sonographic determination of spleen size, normal dimensions in adults with a healthy spleen. Ultraschall Med.1986; 7(3) : 134-137.
16. Rosenberg H.K, Markowitz R.L, Kolberg H, Park C, Hubbard A, Bellah R.D. Normal splenic size in infants and children,sonographic measurements. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991;157(1) : 119-121.
17. Spielmann A.L, DeLong D.M, Kliewer M.A. Sonographic evaluation of spleen. Forensic Sci. Int.2006; 184(1):45-49.
18. Klush L, Teichgraber U.K,. Schneider U, Ludwig W.D, Dorken B, Benter T. Accuracy of the sonographic determination of the splenic weight in comparison with the weight at autopsy Rofo 2003; 175(4) : 532-535.
19. Robrigues Junior, A.J, Rodrigues C.J, Germano M.A, Rasera Junior I, Cerri, Gm.G, sonographic assessment of normal spleen volume. Clin Anat. 1995; 8(4) : 252-255.
20. Allan P, Baxter G. Clinical Ultrasound, Vol. I, 3rd edition, Churchill Livingstone (An imprint of Elsevier) 2011; 324 – 347.
21. Rumack C.M, Wilson S.R, Charboneau, J. W. and Johsan, J. M. Diagnostic Ultrasound, Third Edition, Elsevier Mosby 2005; 3 – 8.
22. Chauhan R, Kapoor V, Vohra P.A, Jhala P.J, Upadhyaya A. K.,and Pathak K. J. Assoc. Physician India 1996; 44 ( 7 ) : 483 –485.
23. Benter T, Kluhs L,Teichgraber U. J Ultrasound Med.2011;30 ( 9 ):1281-1293.
24. Barone B, Kreuzing P.L,Gusmao P.M. Tuberculosis and AIDS. Br J Inf Dis 2006;10 ( 2 ): 149-153.
25. Palmer P.E.S. Manual of diagnostic Ultrasound, Indian Edition; (World Health Organization, Geneva) A.I.T.B.S. Publisher and Distributor Delhi 2007; 3.
26. Agarwal D, Narayan S, Chakarvarty J and Sunder S. Indian J. Med. Research 2010;132 : 77 – 80.
27. AL- Nakshabandi N.A. The role of Ultrasonography in portal hypertension. The Saudi Jr. of Gastroenterology 2006; 12: 111-117.