Extradural Haematoma: Protocol Needs Revision for Conservative Management
Background: Brain Trauma Foundation recommends EDH volume of greater than 30 cm3 warrants surgical evacuation irrespective of Glasgow Coma Scale. Often it is observed that Not all cases of acute EDH require immediate surgical evacuation, cases with lesser than 5 mm midline shift, no focal neurological deficits and GCS>8 and can be managed conservatively provided the patients are closely observed for any deterioration in GCS. For EDH with a volume more or less than 30ml in the supratentorial space and, a midline shift 6-10 mm, with a GCS score > 10, was attempted non-surgical management, with close observation and serial CT scanning. Aim: The aim of this study was to discover the most important factors influencing the management strategy and outcome of EDH. Methods: 70 adult patients treated for EDH were included in this retrospective study, 26 cases (37%) underwent urgent surgery, 44 cases (62.8%) were managed conservatively out of which one third of patient required delayed surgery. Results: Our study showed that out of 62 % of the patients who were conservatively managed, 72 % had a favorable outcome despite the presence of a midline shift of 6- 10 mm and an EDH volume of >30 ml but having a good GCS score. Conservatively managed patients with GCS >10, 77% had Good Recovery. Those with high EDH volume, 61% had a good outcome. 84 % of the patients having a midline shift between 6-10 mm had a good recovery. Patients with GCS < 8 had a poorer outcome than patients in good neurological status, regardless of the therapy. Conclusions: Hence we conclude, EDH must be promptly diagnosed by CT scan and considered as an emergency lest misdiagnosed and should be admitted into a neurosurgical care unit. Close neurological monitoring, appropriate follow up CT scans in the setting of improved GCS score resulting in good outcome in patient on conservative management.
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