Study of Efficacy of Tramadol as an Adjuvant to Lignocaine in Intravenous Regional Anesthesia at a Tertiary Care Teaching Centre
Introduction: Tramadol is a central analgesic with an opioid agonistic activity with some selectivity for µ-receptors. Several studies showed that tramadol is beneficial as an additive to local anesthetics in different regional nerve blocks including infiltration, caudal block, brachial plexus block and IVRA. However, the existing data on its role as an additive for IVRA are conflicting. Therefore, a prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine efficacy of Tramadol (100mg) as an intra-operative, post-operative and pre-emptive analgesic as an adjuvant to lignocaine in IVRA.
Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in 80 patients undergoing upper arm orthopedic surgery at Sharda Hospital, School of Medical Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. All patients selected were planned for forearm surgeries, of ASA Grade I or II, aged 16-60 years. Patients received 0.5% lignocaine 40 ml in one group and we added Tramadol 100 mg in the other group. All the patients were monitored for onset of effect, quality of anesthesia, post op analgesia after deflation of tourniquet, time of first analgesic drug and number of analgesic drug required in first 24 hrs.
Results: Onset of sensory analgesia was significantly earlier in group B (59.7±23.8 sec v/s 196.3±42.7) while onset of motor paralysis was similar in both groups. The post-operative analgesia was significantly longer in group B (304.7 ± 87.9 mins) then group A (12.6 ± 5.1 mins). Accordingly the number of analgesics consumed in post-operative first 24 hours was significantly less in group B (1.2±0.6) then group A (2.9±0.8).
Conclusion: Tramadol has favorable effects as an adjuvant to lignocaine for IVRA. Tramadol substantially shortens the onset of sensory block, improves patient’s tolerance of tourniquet, prolongs the duration of analgesia after deflation of tourniquet and reduces the postoperative analgesic consumption.
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