Helicobacter pylori Infection and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms

  • Sabina Khan Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, HIMSR, Jamia Hamdard
  • P.N. Fathima Beevi MBBS Student, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
  • Musharraf Husain Professor & Head, Dept. of Surgery, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
  • Mohd. Jaseem Hassan Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, HIMSR, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
  • Sujata Jetley Professor & Head, Department of Pathology, HIMSR, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
Keywords: H.pylori, gastrointestinal diseases, malignancy.


Background: H. pylori infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world which can result in various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from inflammation to even malignancy. Its prevalence is higher in developing countries, especially in lower socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic patients and its relationship with various risk factors specially smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic status. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was done in symptomatic patients undergoing gastroduodenoscopy, to assess the prevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in a tertiary care hospital of South Delhi. The gold standard diagnosis of H. pylori infection was histologic presence of the bacteria in the gastric biopsy. The variables analyzed as possible risk factors included demographic and living characteristics, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol, and clinical indications of H. pylori infection. Results: A total of 70 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms were included in the study. On histopathology, 51were found positive for H. pylori infection with a prevalence of 72.86%. No statistically significant difference was found between the H. pylori infection and socioeconomic status. H. pylori infection was found to be statistically significant for subjects who consumed alcohol (93.3%, p=0.046). They had 6.67 times risk of developing H. pylori infection compared to non-alcoholics. There was no significant association of H. pylori infection among the smokers and the non-smokers. Conclusions: There was no significant relationship between smoking, tobacco consumption, socioeconomic status and H. pylori infection. However, alcohol consumption (93.3%, p=0.046) and non-vegetarian diet (80%, p=0.01236) showed a higher significant association with active infection.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Anonymous Live flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Lyon, 7-14 June 1994. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum,1994; 61:1-241.
2. Cover TL, Blaser MJ: Helicobacter pylori factors associated with disease. Gastroenterology, 1990; 117:257-261
3. Kanbay M, Gur G, Arslan H, Yilmaz U, Boyacioglu S: The relationship of ABO blood group, age, gender, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 2005; 50(7): 1214-17
4. Valliani A, Khan F, Ahmed B, Khuwaja A K, Majid S, Hashimi S, Nanji K, Valliani S: Factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infections, Results from a developing country- Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013; 14: 53-56
5. Hunt RH, Xiao SD, Megraud F et al: Helicobacter pylori in developing countries. J Gastroenterol Liver Dis 2011; 20: 299-4.
6. Chaudhry S et al: Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric mucosa: Correlation revisited. Special Communication, 2008; 58(6): 331-33.
7. Choudhury G, Mohindra S: Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in India. Indian J Gastroenterol, 2000; 19 (Suppl1): S3-S6.
8. Thirumurthi S, Graham DY: Helicobacter pylori infection in India from a western perspective. Indian J MedRes, 2012; 136 (4): 549-62
9. Ramakrishna BS: Helicobacter pylori infection in India: the case against eradication. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, 2006; 25: 25-28
10. Rastogi M, Rastogi D, Singh S, Agarwal A, Priyadarshi BP, Middh T: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic adult patients in a tertiary care hospital: A cross sectional study. Biomed Res-india, 2015; 26(1)
11. Hamid OSE, Eldaif WAH: Association of helicobacter pylori infection with lifestyle chronic diseases and body-index. Journal of Science,2014;4(4): 255-58.
12. Kate V, Ananthakrishnan N, Ratnakar C, Badrinath S. Anti - H.pylori IgG Seroprevalence rates in asymptomatic children & adults from South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2001; 19: 20-25.
13. Torres J, Leal HY, Perez PG, Gomez A, Camorlinga PM, Cedillo RR, Tapia CR, Munoz O. A community-based seroepidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection in Mexico. J Infect Dis. 1998; 178:1089-94.
14. Kumar R, Bano G, Kapoor B, Sharma S, Gupta Y. Clinical profile in Helicobacter pylori positive patients in Jammu. J.K. Science; 2006; 8(3): 148-150.
15. Laszewicza W, Iiwanczakb F, Iwancazakb B: seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Polish children depending on socioeconomic status and living conditions. Adv. Med Sci, 2014; 59(1):147-50
16. Hu D, ShaoJ, Wang L, Zheng H, Xu Y, Song G, Liu Q: Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese maritime workers. Ann Hum Biol, 2013; 40 (6) :4726
17. Zaterka S, Eisig JN, Chinzon D, Rothstein W. Factors related to Helicobacter pylori prevalence in an adult population in Brazil.Helicobacter,2007;12(1):828
18. Epplein M, Zheng W, Honglan L, Peek RM. Jr, Correa P, Gao J, Michel A, Pawlita M, Cai Q, Xiang YB, Shu XO: Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and Gastric cancer risk on Chinese men. Nutr Cancer,2014;66(4):550-557
19. Rosenstock S, Kay L, Rosenstock C, Andersen LP, Bonnevie O, Jorgensen T: Relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes. Gut, 1997;41(2) :169-76.
20. Moayyedi P, Axona ATR, Feltbowerb R, Cuffetta S, Crocombec W, Braun HD, Richardse IDG, Dowellf AC,
Formang D: Relation of adult lifestyle and socioeconomic factors to the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2002; 31(3):624-631
21. Sharma B, Sharma N, Chauhan V, Thakur S, Kaushal SS: Relationship of Smoking with H.pylori Incidence in Non-ulcer Dyspepsia Patients. Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine,2006;7(1)
22. Alsaimary IE, Mezal TJ, Jassim HA, Alwajeeh YAY, Talib RA, Abdul-Samad HQ, Hussain DS, Majeed HA: Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Healthy Medical Students in Al-Basrah Province. Donnish Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 2014; 1(2): 012-017
23. Ghosh P, Kandhare AD, Raygude KS, Gauba D, Gosavi TP, Bodhankar SL: Cigarette smoking and H. pylori infection: A meta-analysis of literature, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012; 4 (1): 128-134
24. Rajashekhar V, Bhasin DK, Ray P et al: Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic smokers with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Trop Gastroenterol ,2000; 21:71-2.
25. Parasher G, Eastwood GL: Smoking and peptic ulcer in the Helicobacter pylori era. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol,2000;12(8):843-53
26. Ogihara A, Kikuchi S, Hasegawa A, Kurosawa M, Miki K, Kaneko E, Mizukoshi H: Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking and drinking habits. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2000; 15 (3): 271-276
27. Fernando N, Jayakumar G, Perera N, Amarasingha I, Meedin F, Holton J: Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non-betel chewers with and without oral cancers.BMC Oral Health, 2009;9: 23.
28. Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Adler G: Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study. BMJ, 1997; 315:1489
29. Gikas A, Triantafillidis JK, Apostolidis N, Mallas E, Peros G, Androulakis G: Relationship of smoking and coffee and alcohol consumption with seroconversion to helicobacter pylori: a longitudinal study in hospital workers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol,2004;19(8):927-33
30. Zhang L, Eslick GD, Xia HHX, Wu C, Phung N, Talley NJ: Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Active Helicobacter pylori Infection. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 2010; 45 (1): 89-94.
How to Cite
Khan S, Beevi PF, Husain M, Hassan MJ, Jetley S. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res [Internet]. 2017Mar.18 [cited 2023Sep.25];3(1):38-3. Available from: https://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/115