Social Determinants of Low Back Pain in Females of Reproductive Age Group Residing in Urban Lahore, Pakistan

  • Saadia Shahzad Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shalamar Medical and Dental College, Shalamar Link Road, Mughalpura, Lahore, Pakistan.
Keywords: Females, reproductive age, low back pain, social factors


Background: Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is a common problem among females of reproductive age group that leads to low quality of life to a greater extent. Nonspecific LBP is other than any diagnosed pathological or structural cause of back pain. Objectives: 1) to determine trends of back pain in females of reproductive age group 2) to identify association between social determinants and LBP. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in one town of Lahore, Pakistan; selected randomly. Convenient sampling technique was applied to recruit the study subjects. Sample size was calculated on Sample Size Determination in Health Studies Software by WHO. Calculated sample size was 89, and researcher had taken a sample of 100 females. Target group for current study was females of reproductive age (15-49 years); and age was categorized into two categories i.e.≤30 years and ≥30 years for frequency determination.  Data collection tool was self-developed questionnaire and data collection was done through interview method. Data analysis was done using SPSS 20. Results: Age range was 18-46 years; Mean age was 32.59 ± 7.73. 27% females had LBP in the ≤30 year category and 60% females had LBP in the ≥30 year category. A total of 87% females were found to have LBP, whereas 13% females did not have LBP. Chi square application revealed statistically significant association (P-value ˂0.05) between LBP and variables studied: marital status, onset age of menarche, number of children, pressure of daily additional home chores, feeling fatigued by 2pm after doing work since morning, and irregular sleep pattern. Conclusions: Significant association between LBP and social determinants in present study emphasize upon further research in this area with a representative sample of the total population and more detailed and comprehensive questionnaire. This will help to plan and implement health education and preventive plan in this age group.


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How to Cite
Shahzad S. Social Determinants of Low Back Pain in Females of Reproductive Age Group Residing in Urban Lahore, Pakistan. IABCR [Internet]. 20Dec.2017 [cited 23Feb.2019];3(4):20-3. Available from: