International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US [email protected] (Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD) [email protected] (Mohd Waseem) Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:22:38 +0000 OJS 60 An Update on Data Distribution and Techniques of Data Transformation <p><em>The distribution in biostatistics can be defined as distribution of frequencies of values of a given variable in a sample. Distribution can be broadly classified into normal and skewed distribution. Normal distribution is a symmetrical bell shaped curve. ±1 standard deviation covers 65% of values around median value and ±2 S.D. covers 95% of values around median value. Mean, median &amp; mode are equal for normal distribution curve. Parametric test like t test and ANOVA are based on the assumption that the data follows normal distribution. In skewed or asymmetrical distribution, there is clustering of cases in either right side or left side of the curve. In right sided skewness, the tail of curve is on the right side. In left skewed distribution, the tail is on the left side. Non-parametric test can be used in case of skewed data. Parametric test are more robust as compare to non-parametric test. The alternative is to transform the numerical variable into another scale where the values do satisfy the assumptions needed for the desired parametric or “normal” statistical methods. These technique include logarithm transformation, generalized linear modelling, and bootstrapping. </em></p> Ahmad Najmi, Avik Ray Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Najmi, Avik Ray Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:21:49 +0000 An Update on Biomedical Literature Search for Budding Research Scholars <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><em>Literature search can be defined as systematic review of all scientific resources, both published and unpublished. Literature search is continuous process. It provides new ideas of research. It helps us to frame new research questions and to identify the knowledge gap. There are no straightforward rules for literature search. Each researcher has its own method of literature search. In this review article we shall discuss about various types and&nbsp; sources of literature, steps and techniques of literature search which will serve as a quick guide for budding research scholars. </em></p> Ahmad Najmi, Farhan Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Najmi, Farhan Ahmad Khan Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:19:20 +0000 Bacterial and Clinical Profile of Diabetic Foot Ulcer using Optimal Culture Techniques: A Prospective Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are the complications of diabetes mellitus. The infection of diabetic foot ulcer is microbes in nature. If they are not recognized and controlled it may lead to many devastating consequences like limb amputation, sepsis, and even mortality. So, the present study was aimed that to determine the bacterial and clinical profile of diabetic foot ulcer using optimal culture techniques.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This prospective study was conducted on Type 2 Diabetic patients with foot ulcer. Around 206 total cases were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The duration of study was over a period of two years.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The result of this study revealed that causative agent of DFU were found due to aerobic in n = 170 cases whereas anaerobic bacteria in n = 36 cases.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>This study concludes that that proper care should be offered, causative organisms should be timely identified and antibiotic should be sensibly chosen to cut short the morbidity and mortality of DFU.</em></p> Syed Sibte Akbar Abidi, Devesh Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Syed Sibte Akbar Abidi, Devesh Gupta Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:15:17 +0000 A Cross Sectional Study to Assess the Levels of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Chronic Obstruction Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Objective:&nbsp; In&nbsp; the&nbsp; present&nbsp; study,&nbsp; demographic&nbsp; profile,&nbsp; knowledge&nbsp; and&nbsp; motivation&nbsp; of&nbsp; COPD&nbsp; patients&nbsp; attending tertiary&nbsp; hospital,&nbsp; the&nbsp; level&nbsp; of&nbsp; anxiety&nbsp; and&nbsp; depression&nbsp; is&nbsp; assessed. </em><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This&nbsp; cross-sectional study&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried&nbsp; out&nbsp; on &nbsp;consecutive patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; COPD&nbsp; during&nbsp; their&nbsp; routine&nbsp; out-and&nbsp; in-patient&nbsp; visits&nbsp; in&nbsp; the tertiary care hospital during 4 months (April 2019 to July 2019). Physician confirmed cases of more than 1-year duration were included in the study. Thus 194 COPD patients were admitted in the ward. They were interviewed by&nbsp; using&nbsp; HADS&nbsp; scale&nbsp; and&nbsp; Modified&nbsp; Morisky&nbsp; scale.&nbsp; The&nbsp; diagnosis&nbsp; of&nbsp; COPD&nbsp; was&nbsp; confirmed&nbsp; by&nbsp; Chest&nbsp; X-ray&nbsp; and Spirometery test and a history of exacerbation or hospitalization over past 6 months was also obtained. The chi square-test, t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used in the univariate analyses, whilst regression was used in the multiple variable analyses.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>A total of 194 COPD individuals, 124 Males and 70 Females were enrolled&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; study.&nbsp; The&nbsp; mean&nbsp; age&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; respondents&nbsp; was&nbsp; 49.16&nbsp; ±&nbsp; 8.20&nbsp; (25-62)&nbsp; years.&nbsp; The&nbsp; mean&nbsp; scores&nbsp; for anxiety and depression were 19.12± 2.38 and 11.54± 2.50 respectively. Both anxiety and depression scores were statistically &nbsp;significant&nbsp; between&nbsp; the&nbsp; gender.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Among&nbsp; males&nbsp; 70&nbsp; %&nbsp; cases&nbsp; were&nbsp; having&nbsp; no&nbsp; comorbid&nbsp; conditions; however, 57.10 % females were having more than two comorbid conditions. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Present study illustrates that anxiety and depression are common in patients with COPD, furthermore, patients with depressive disorders have more comorbidities in comparison with patient with anxiety.</em></p> Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, B N Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, B N Singh Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:10:30 +0000 Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumour – A Rare Cause of Uncontrollable Post-Operative Hemorrhage in Obstetric Cases <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><em>Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease developing from intermediate trophoblasts. </em><em>PSTTs are incredibly rare tumours with 1 in 100000 pregnancies and only about 200 cases reported till date with mortality reaching up to 25% in undiagnosed cases. We present the case of a 37year old female, gravida 4 para 3, presenting with uncontrollable post caesarean haemorrhage for which she underwent subtotal hysterectomy. Histopathological examination revealed Placental site trophoblastic tumour. Placental site trophoblastic tumour, being a rare entity, pose difficulties in its early diagnosis. </em><em>Delayed diagnosis can lead to distant metastases, thus worsening the prognosis.</em></p> Bushra Siddiqui, Dipanjan Sinha , Shahbaz Habib Faridi, Mohd. Feroz Alam Copyright (c) 2022 Bushra Siddiqui, Dipanjan Sinha , Shahbaz Habib Faridi, Mohd. Feroz Alam Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:07:08 +0000 Knowledge and Attitude of Adult Saudi Community towards Premarital Screening Program (Sickle Cell Anemia/Thalassemia) in Riyadh Province of Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Premarital Screening (PMS) program in Saudi Arabia aims at limiting the spread of hereditary diseases like Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) and Thalassemia and infectious diseases like Hepatitis B&amp;C and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the PMS program is reducing the percentage of incompatible marriages, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies is still remaining high. With the changing perception of the general population towards the PMS program, an examination of community awareness and attitude toward PMS is needed to find ways for reducing the prevalence of diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aimed to assess the present knowledge and attitude of the adult Saudi community from Riyadh Province to the premarital screening (PMS) program for hemoglobinopathies.</p> <p>Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 676 participants from the general population in June-September 2022. The electronic questionnaire was used to assess the sociodemographic data, knowledge, and attitude toward the PMS program.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 676 participants, 58% were females, and 42% were males. 54% had consanguineous marriages and 5.6% hemoglobinopathies in the family. 92.6% had heard of PMS, and participants knew that SCA and thalassemia can be detected by PMS 47.4% and 36.3% respectively. 96.3% agreed on suggesting PMS to others, 83.2% considered PMS incompatible marriage is wrong, and 78.6% considered associated genetic counselling is important. 22.7% preferred consanguineous marriage over non-consanguineous. For raising awareness, 97.6%, 85.9%, 84.6%, and 81.2% of respondents felt the need for community participation through the internet, social media, and medical education in schools respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Most participants have a positive attitude but only superficial knowledge of the PMS program and one-third are still unaware of its use for the prevention of hemoglobinopathies, especially thalassemia. Increasing the knowledge about the importance of the PMS program and associated genetic counselling should be done with multiple information sources in a well-organized way that suits the community’s requirements.&nbsp;</p> Shujaat Khan, Mohammad Azhar Rashikh, Saad Mohammed Alsaab, Nemer Alotaibi , Fahad Mohammed Aldehaim, Dinesh Dimri, Prasanna Mohana Bhaskaran Copyright (c) 2022 Shujaat Khan, Mohammad Azhar Rashikh, Saad Mohammed Alsaab, Nemer Alotaibi , Fahad Mohammed Aldehaim, Dinesh Dimri, Prasanna Mohana Bhaskaran Mon, 30 Jan 2023 10:17:05 +0000