International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD) (Mohd Waseem) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Review of Antiviral Activities Present in some Indian Medicinal Plants – Can they be used against SARS-CoV-2? <p><em>COVID-19 has quickly emerged as a global concern, affecting the lives of millions across the globe. It has got a different impact in different nations based on their cultural norms, mitigation strategies and healthcare architecture. In India, quite a vast majority depends on traditional Indian medicine for treatment of human illnesses due to low-cost, easier availability favorable side-effect profile. These medicines are made from herbal plants. Researchers have identified various properties of plant materials such as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-cancerous and many more. Novels antiviral may be developed from these resources. The present study reviews the antiviral properties of ten Indian medicinal plants, namely Ailanthus excelsa, Alstonia scholaris, Nigella sativa, Adhatoda vasica, Albizia lebbeck, Andrographis paniculate, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum basilicum and Tinospora cordifolia. Probable therapeutic roles of these plants against SARS-CoV-2 should also be explored. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmad Najmi, Danish Javed, Avik Ray, Balakrishnan Sadasivam Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmad Najmi, Danish Javed, Avik Ray, Balakrishnan Sadasivam Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Effects of Gender and Age on Forensic Personal Identification from Frontal Sinus Using CT Scan <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Sex identification is a crucial step in the identification process of unknown human remains. Frontal sinus radiography has been used for identification of remains and determination of gender. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus using CT scan.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong><em>The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus using CT scan. The study group consisted of 250 subjects in the age range of 20 years and above who were randomly chosen. The CT scans of the axial and coronal planes by a 16-detector multislice CT device were taken. All evaluations and measurements were performed with a Digital Imaging Communication in Medicine (DICOM) viewer program. In total, 8 measurements were used in this study.&nbsp; The width and height of both sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane. Volumes were calculated using the HBYS &amp; PACS program. The Statistical Package of the Social Science version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical computations. Statistical significance was considered as p&lt;0.05.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In the present study, the average width of right frontal sinus in male was 2.32cm and in female were 2.21cm. The average width of left frontal sinus in male was 2.96cm and in female was 2.76 cm. The average length of right frontal sinus in male was 1.21cm and in female were 1.27cm. The average length of left frontal sinus in male was 1.56 cm and in female was 1.34cm. The average area of right frontal sinus in male was 3.78cm<sup>2</sup> and in female were 3.34cm<sup>2</sup>. The average area of left frontal sinus in male was 4.78cm2 and in female was 3.87cm<sup>2</sup>. The average area of frontal sinus in age group 20-30 years in males was 7.31cm<sup>2</sup> and in females was 5.09 cm<sup>2</sup>. The average area of frontal sinus in age group 31-40 years in males was 8.34cm2 and in females was 7.87 cm<sup>2</sup>. The average area of frontal sinus in age group 41-50 years in males was 11.45cm2 and in females was 7.89 cm<sup>2</sup>. The average area of frontal sinus in age group above 50 years in males was 6.89 cm2 and in females was&nbsp; 8.07cm<sup>2</sup>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The present study concluded that the average width of right and left frontal sinus in male was more than female. The average length of right frontal sinus in female was more than males. The average length of left frontal sinus in male was more than females. The average area of right and left frontal sinus in male was more than females. The average area of frontal sinus in the age groups 20-30 years, 31-40 years and 41-50 years was more in males and in age group above 50 years it was more in females. </em></p> Tanushri ., Sagun Shukla Copyright (c) 2020 Tanushri ., Sagun Shukla Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Morphometric Study of Nutrient Foramen of Tibia and its Clinical Implication in the South Rajasthan Region <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Human body is made up of framework of variety of bones and make human body&nbsp; Bone is core structure of the human skeleton and form the framework of the human. During embryological and fetal life arteries enter into long bone through nutrient foramen and entry into medullary cavity, which is, require for growth long bone. Various surgical procedures like fracture reduction, bone grafting and joint replacement require sufficient knowledge of nutrient foramen and nutrient artery.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Aim: </em></strong><em>The Aim of the present study is: (A) To identify the position, number &amp; direction of diaphyseal nutrient foramina of Tibia. (B) To identify any variations in number, location and position of diaphyseal nutrient foramina of tibia. (c) calculate the foramina index by Hughes formula.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong><em>Present study was conducted on 100-dried Human Tibia with unknown age and sex, which was taken from the anatomy department of Geetanjali medical college &amp; Hospital Udaipur and Pacific medical college &amp; hospital, Udaipur and marked number on it. Morphological and pathological abnormal bones excluded from study. Help of vernier caliper and fine gauge needle, we observed location and distance from proximal end, number and direction of nutrient foramen and calculate foramina index. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In present study we found single foramen present in 80 bone, Double foramen present 18 bone and in 2 bone there was triple foramen at different level. According direction: In upward direction of foramen found in 1 bone, horizontal direction found in 3 bone and most of bone have downward direction. According location: In most of bone Nutrient foramen was situated on posterior surface except in four bones where it was situated on lateral surface and In 66 bone Nutrient foramen present in upper 1/3 of bone except 34 bone where it present in middle 1/3. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>In present study we found, Nutrient foramen was located mostly on the posterior surface and direction was downward. Nutrient artery is very important for blood supply of long bones. Therefore, it is very important for surgeons to have sound knowledge of precise morphology and morphometric of nutrient foramen</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Brijeshkumar R. Aghera, Sami Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Brijeshkumar R. Aghera, Sami Ahmed Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Determine the Anatomical Location of the Sphenoid Sinus Ostium in Relation to the Surrounding Landmarks <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The knowledge of the anatomy of the central skull base, particularly the anatomical region around the sphenoid sinus, plays an important role in the stepwise surgical training for endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the anatomical location of the sphenoid sinus ostium in relation to the surrounding landmarks.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong><em>The present study was carried out to determine the anatomical location of the sphenoid sinus ostium in relation to the surrounding landmarks on sixty sagittal head and neck sections of adult cadavers.&nbsp; The length of the sinus was measured. The distance of the ostium from the major anatomical landmarks was measured using Vernier calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics (International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), New York, USA), version 22 for Windows.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In the present study anatomical location of the sphenoid sinus ostium in relation to the surrounding landmarks on sixty sagittal head and neck sections of adult formalin-fixed cadavers was done. The length of the sinus on the right side (1.92cm) was less when compared to the left side (2.76 cm). The width of the sinus was found to be more on the left side (1.79 cm) when compared to the right side (1.12 cm).&nbsp;The distance of the ostium from choana on left side was more (3.32cm). The distance of the ostium from nasion on left side was more (4.92cm). The distance of the ostium from anterior end of the superior concha on left side was more (2.23cm). The distance of the ostium from basisphenoid on left side was more (4.01cm). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Endoscopic endonasal approaches through sphenoid sinus require more prudence due to the possible variability regarding sphenoid sinus ostium, pneumatization and neurovascular bony landmarks. &nbsp;The present study will help in the endoscopic surgical approach of sinus ostium using the various anatomical landmarks. </em></p> Rajeev Choudhary, Ravi Kumar Meena, Sushila Shekhawat, Khushboo Mogra, Rohin Garg Copyright (c) 2020 Rajeev Choudhary, Ravi Kumar Meena, Sushila Shekhawat, Khushboo Mogra, Rohin Garg Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Morphological Findings with Hormonal Levels in Normal and Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome Patients <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The PCOS is the commonest endocrinal disturbance leading to infertility and oligomenorrhea characterized by the presence of enlarged ovaries with multiple small cysts and a hypervascularized androgen secreting stroma.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong><em>Total 105 cases between the age 18 to 40 years were studied, out of which 25 were normal to serve as control and 80 PCOS patients were selected. Size and Volume of both ovaries was measured by USG. Hormonal levels for serum LH, FSH, and LH : FSH ratio were determined by chemiluminescence method {CLIA}.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>So most of the patient were in age group 21 to 30 yrs i.e. 15 patients (60%). So mean ovarian volume was within normal range (less than 10cc) in all the age groups.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>In our study LH:FSH ratio was found more than 2 in 51.25% of PCOS patients and USG positive morphological findings of ovaries were found in all the 80 patients of PCOS (100%). There is a significant co-relation between ovarian morphology and LH: FSH Ratio.</em></p> Motwani Veena, C. Banerjee Copyright (c) 2020 Motwani Veena, C. Banerjee Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Prospective Study to Effect of Age on Cardiovascular Autonomic Function Tests in Healthy Subjects in Mulayam Singh Yadav Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh: An Institutional Based Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronologic &amp; biologic ageing begin at conception, although senescent changes, defined as functional declines are usually apparent only after sexual maturation. age though both sympathetic and parasympathetic are affected but parasympathetic involvement appears to be more frequent than sympathetic. This is a present study to evaluate the effect of age on cardiovascular autonomic function tests in healthy subjects (18-65 years) of both sexes.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp;Methods: </strong>The cross-sectional study was carried out in 100 healthy subjects in the age range of 18 - 65 years randomly selected among the staff &amp; students of Mulayam Singh Yadav Medical college, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. All the subjects were divided in to group I to group IV. All the subjected were recording of their physical anthropometry, various physiological parameters and autonomic function parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found a significant (p=0.02) increase in the BMI of subjects from Group I to Group IV except in Group II. There is insignificant (p=0.107) decrease in the BSA of subjects from Group I to Group IV. Parasympathetic activity test was statistically significant from Group I to Group IV. BP response to sustained handgrip was statistically significant from Group I to Group IV but BP response to standing was statistical non-significant (P=0.203).</p> <h2>Conclusion: We have tried to present different cardiovascular autonomic function tests both as absolute values &amp; also as function scores. It appears that presenting autonomic function as function score can be easily interpreted. Autonomic function expressed as grading as per function score may be more useful for clinical purposes.</h2> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rajkumar, Anita Moral Copyright (c) 2020 Rajkumar, Anita Moral Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anxiety Among Indian Students in Duration of Covid-19 Lockdown: A Survey Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>People are at risk of mental health issues due to lockdown. Indian Government enforced the stringent measures for&nbsp;implementing lockdown on 25<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;March 2020 to protect the people from the COVID-19 pandemic infection, but universities and colleges were closed earlier. Pandemic led to psychological illnesses like anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorders in general public as well&nbsp;as in students. GAD-7 scale is a screening tool to measure anxiety. We aim to assess the anxiety levels in college students during lockdown using GAD-7 scale.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>An online anonymous survey was conducted among university students to find out the level of anxiety among college students from 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;to 31<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;July 2020. They were assessed using GAD-7 score and students were grouped in various levels on the basis of their score.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>55.96% of the students were found having symptoms of anxiety with 36.01% having mild anxiety, 13.99% with moderate anxiety and 5.96% with severe anxiety.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: COVID-19 lockdown has affected mental health in all ages including students. We should focus on mental wellbeing of all age groups including students. Government should focus on anxiety and mental health of students by online counseling through its tele-education TV channels and online portals.</em></p> Kashif Ali, Umamah Mufti, Aliya Mufti Copyright (c) 2020 Kashif Ali, Umamah Mufti, Aliya Mufti Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Therapy with Levosimendan Versus Dobutamine in Acute Heart Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Acute heart failure (AHF) is defined as the rapid onset of symptoms and signs secondary to cardiac dysfunction. Dobutamine is an established positive inotropic drug used in AHF with prompt action, most useful in heart failure complicated with hypotension. Levosimendan, another inotropic agent, has been shown to increase calcium sensitivity of Troponin C (TropC) of myofilaments by a novel mechanism and to inhibit phosphodiesterase III activity in myocardium. The present study was attempted to know the effectiveness of levosimendan with dobutamine in the management of AHF, as add-on to standard treatment.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>In present study, 40 AHF patients </em><em>were randomly selected those who were admitted to intensive coronary care unit (ICCU). A head-to-head comparison was carried out between levosimendan and dobutamine administered to AHF patients in addition to other existing drugs as a parallel group, open label, randomized controlled trial. Dosing was as per standard recommendation with infusion of each drug being continued for up to 48hrs. Subjects were assessed at baseline, and then at 24hrs, 1 week and 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures were change of heart rate, blood pressure, cardinal clinical features (dyspnea, orthopnea and crepitations), and 24hrs urine output. The secondary outcomes were changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and plasma NT-ProBNP. Treatment emergent adverse events were captured. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Among 40 patients recruited 35 could complete the study. Both Dobutamine and Levosimendan provided symptom relief within 24hrs; heart rate declined, blood pressure and urine output improved along with improvement of echocardiographic parameters. NT-Pro BNP also declined in both groups. Although statistically significant differences were observed at some time points, and symptom relief was better in Levosimendan arm, no clear differences in LVEF and NT-pro BNP were observed. LVEDV reduction was arguably better in the Levosimendan arm. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>In conclusion, Levosimendan can be considered as a therapeutic option in AHF but cannot be considered as a substitute for Dobutamine.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Subrata Ray, Amal Kannti Das, Achyut Sarkar, Avijit Hazra Copyright (c) 2020 Subrata Ray, Amal Kannti Das, Achyut Sarkar, Avijit Hazra Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Anti-Obesity Effect of Sitagliptin in Animal Model of Obesity <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Obesity is a chronic disorder which involves an excess accumulation of body fat.&nbsp; It is a growing health problem of increasing prevalence in many countries, reaching alarming proportions not only in adults, but also among children and adolescents which leads to substantial increase in morbidity, and mortality. The use of antiobesity drugs in management of obesity is vital. Many attempts have been made to develop novel drugs to treat obesity and several of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of various side effects. GLP-1 agonist and the pathways associated with it are a new potential and promising targets for the treatment of obesity.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong><strong><em> :</em></strong><em> (</em><em>1) To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of orlistat (2) To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of sitagliptin (3) To compare the anti-obesity effect of orlistat and sitagliptin in animal model of obesity. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This study was a prospective study of 17 weeks duration. Obesity due to high fat diet was induced in rats over a period of 17 weeks. Orlistat and sitagliptin were administered for 5 weeks and various parameters like body weight, blood glucose, food intake &amp; BMI were measured over a period of 5 weeks. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study upon administration of orlistat there was a gradual loss in weight in rats. Sitagliptin showed significant </em><em>decline in weight (P&lt;0.05) in rats. It also </em><em>showed statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in blood glucose among all the groups. Orlistat and sitagliptin had no significant effect on food intake. Reduction in BMI lead to reduction in Blood glucose levels of rats. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Sitagliptin showed the most reduction of blood glucose, it also showed reduction in total body weight. Orlistat was found to be least efficacious in terms of reduction in total body weight, food intake, blood glucose and BMI in rats. </em></p> Mohit Kulmi, Pooja Reddy, Chhaya Goyal Copyright (c) 2020 Mohit Kulmi, Pooja Reddy, Chhaya Goyal Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Rebleeding in Acute Variceal Hemorrhage: An Institutional Based Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Upper gastrointestinal (GI) variceal bleeding is associated with significant mortality in cirrhosis. Guidelines of major GI societies adopt the use of antibiotics in acute variceal bleeding due to its efficacy in the reduction of bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The recommendations on the choice of antibiotics are however based on a limited number of studies and mostly with small sample sizes.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study: </strong>To evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Endoscopy were performed as soon as possible and EVL or endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) was performed as indicated. Post endoscopic therapy, patients were kept nil per oral and intravenous fluids for at least 24 h. After the endoscopic therapy, patients included in the study were randomized into two groups, Group 1 and Group 2. Patients in group 1 received antibiotic prophylaxis with intravenous ofloxacin 200 mg q12h for 2 days or till the oral fluids were allowed followed by oral ofloxacin 200 mg q12h for a total of 7 days. Patients in group 2 did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis on presentation. Antibiotics were used only when infection was suspected or established.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 20 patients each in Group 1 and 2. Number of male patients in group 1 and group 2 were 11 and 13, respectively. Number of female patients in group 1 and group 2 were 9 and 7, respectively. We observed that the incidence of infections was more significant in group 2 as compared to group 1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:&nbsp; Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that infection rate is less significant in the prophylaxis group when compared with the control group, but the differences were not significant probably due to small sample size and short follow-up.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jatin Patel, Nikunj H Patel, Sumit Patel Copyright (c) 2020 Jatin Patel, Nikunj H Patel, Sumit Patel Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Hospital Based Comparative Study to Evaluate the Correlation Between Insulin Resistance (By HOMA-IR) and Lipid Profile Among Obese Adults <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Obesity is a clinical condition in which excess body fat accumulates to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and or increased health problems. So, we took the opportunity to conduct the present study with the aim to explore the associations of lipid profile parameters and ratios with insulin resistance (IR) in adult obese population.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A hospital based comparative study 50 obese individual, attended in department of physiology &amp; biochemistry in SP Medical college, Bikaner, Rajasthan. Estimate of Insulin Resistance is calculated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Our study showed that the correlation with BMI and Insulin Resistance is significant (p&lt;0.05) in obese Indian adults. HOMA-IR showed highly significant positive association with at p&lt;0.05 level in obese adults TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C. Fasting glucose (FBS) showed significant positive correlation with BMI and lipid parameters (TG, TC, LDL).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: We concluded that abnormal lipid profile and insulin resistance were found to be common in obese adults. Both are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Deepak Maharia, Manoj Garg Copyright (c) 2020 Deepak Maharia, Manoj Garg Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Similar Sounding (Phonological) or Similar Looking (Orthographic) Medicines Lead to Medication Errors: A Survey on Residents And Nurses in A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Kolkata, India <p><strong><em>Background: Objectives:&nbsp; </em></strong><em>The present observational study was carried out to know the awareness among resident doctors and nursing staff in a tertiary care hospital regarding sound alike look alike (SALA) medications.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The present questionnaire-based survey work was carried out among 320 nos. of participants in which resident doctors (181 nos.) and nurses (139 nos.) were randomly selected through purposive sampling. A structured questionnaire that has been pretested for data collection. The questionnaire is being administered to respondents individually through face-to-face interview, by two raters, while they were on duty but not during rush hours. All the data were statistically analysed by using Statistical version 8 [Tulsa, Oklahoma: StatSoft Inc., 2007].</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In the present findings, highly significant values (p&lt;0.001) in case of doctors in comparison with nurses related to age and working experiences. In case of medication error (ME) reporting, higher percentage (46.96%) was observed for doctors compared to nurses (25.90%) while uncertain condition was identified higher in nurses (50.36%) compared to doctors (37.02%). In case of gender, ME, and SALA itself, highly significant (p&lt;0.001) differences were observed. The problem of SALA and anticipated problems due to SALA were observed significant (p&lt;0.05 and p&lt;0.000) changes. Among several SALA problems factors, significant changes were found only in case of fatigue and deliberate look-alike packaging (p&lt;0.01) and storing multiple medicines in same container (p&lt;0.05), respectively. Among several awareness factors on SALA problems and medication error, significant changes were obtained in two factors like very distinctive packaging and colour coding during storage (p&lt;0.01) among participants.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The present study emphasizes an improved feature of awareness among hospital staffs viz. resident doctors and nurses regarding SALA medication for the sake of patient safety. The pharmacology department has a role to play in this regard with support from the hospital administration.</em></p> Subrata Ray, Kaushick Mishra, Suparnna Chatterjee, Avijit Hazra Copyright (c) 2020 Subrata Ray, Kaushick Mishra, Suparnna Chatterjee, Avijit Hazra Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Use and Adverse Drug Reactions in the Children Admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India: A Prospective Observational Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Inappropriate antimicrobial use is a matter of increasing concern but suitable antibiotics prescribing practice means using effective, safe, and affordable antibiotics for precise duration. The present study was evaluated to know the use of antibiotics in relation to diagnosis and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary hospital of eastern India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;In present study, 200 children of either sex, up to 12 years age, who admitted in PICU, were studied within a period of 18 months. Baseline demographic and clinical features, hospital stay duration, antimicrobials received, dosing, indications, and details of ADRs were recorded. Every patient was followed up till discharge or death.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Data of total 200 children of PICU admissions, majority were boys (65.0%) and from rural (73.0%) background. Median age was 21 months (interquartile range [IQR] 6-72 months). Approximately similar numbers hailed from nuclear and joint families. Mothers were illiterate in 27.0% and fathers in 24.0% cases. 20.50% children died and the rest were discharged. All studied children of about 100.0% received antibiotics and 96.5% received combination or multiple (two or more) antibiotics. ADRs of at least “possible” causality, were noted in 0.57% instances.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Use of multiple antimicrobials per prescription and heavy reliance on parenteral route merits further exploration. Antimicrobials are mostly used empirically in absence of policy. These findings will hopefully be useful in future for planning long-term and more extensive drug utilization studies in the hospital and in promotion of rational prescribing and drug use. Finally, the baseline data can serve in situation analysis for local antibiotic prescribing guidelines.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><iframe class="ginger-extension-definitionpopup" style="left: 8px; top: 73px; z-index: 2147483646; display: none;" src="chrome-extension://kdfieneakcjfaiglcfcgkidlkmlijjnh/content/popups/definitionPopup/index.html?title=Abstract&amp;description=a%20concept%20or%20idea%20not%20associated%20with%20any%20specific%20instance"></iframe></p> Dr.Kaushick Mishra Copyright (c) 2020 Dr.Kaushick Mishra Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Prevalence of Anemia in Paediatric Cases in Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Anemia is the most common hematological finding observed and reported by pediatricians and general practitioners in pediatric age group. Highest prevalence of anemia is reported in the developing countries. In India, it affects both sexes and all age groups.1.&nbsp; As per the Global Anemia Prevalence, the most affected groups are pregnant females (69%) and school age children (33%).2 Since years, it has been an important challenge in most of the tropical countries<strong>.</strong></em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>In this study we were included 375 total school going children to find out the anemia. This study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics. The duration of study was over a period of one year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This result revealed that Anemia is still a major health problem in our country<strong>. </strong>Childhood anaemia still continues to be a significant public health problem in school children between 6-12 years.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that, deworming was recommended as a routine for at risk and diagnosed individuals.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Supriya A Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Supriya A Patil Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Pyogenic Liver Abscess <p><strong>Background: </strong>Liver abscess is one of the most important clinical problems. Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is defined as a collection of pus surrounded by a fibrous layer of tissue in the liver. The present study was undertaken for evaluating the epidemiological and clinical profile of pyogenic liver abscess.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>A total of 150 patients presenting with signs and symptoms of liver abscess was enrolled. Thorough clinical examination was carried out and abdominal ultrasonography along with examination of the aspirates was done for confirming the diagnosis. Positive bacterial culture report from the aspirate further confirmed the presence of pyogenic liver abscess. Complete demographic data was recorded in a Performa. Detailed history of all the patients was taken and clinical profile was recorded. A questionnaire was made and epidemiological profile was also recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>28.67 percent of the patients belonged to the age group of more than 60 years. 58 percent of the patients belonged to the lower class while 41.33 percent of the patients belonged to the middle class. 80.67 percent of the patients were males. While assessing the clinical profile, it was seen that fever and pain abdomen was seen in 100 percent of the patients each. Jaundice was seen in 77.33 percent of the patients while diarrhoea was seen in 73.33 percent of the patients. Hepatomegaly was observed 83.33 percent of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pyogenic liver abscess mostly manifests in the form of pain abdomen, fever and hepatomegaly and mostly affects subjects of lower socioeconomic state.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Somen Jha, Kumar Ratnesh Copyright (c) 2020 Somen Jha, Kumar Ratnesh Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Prospective Cross-sectional Study on Surgical Site infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern in Bacterial Isolates <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the common post-operative complications. Apart from bacterial contamination of wound, various patient and environment related factors play role in development and outcome of SSI. The present study is undertaken to study the frequency of SSI with reference to factors contributing to it and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the causative organisms. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This single-observer, cross-sectional, complete-enumeration prospective study was carried out over a period of 4 months (from August 2017 to November 2017) in the Department of Surgery, at Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan.</em></p> <p><em>110 pus samples from cases of surgical site infections were processed for gram staining, culture, biochemical identification tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were detected by using oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin was tested by broth dilution technique. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The overall frequency of SSI was 5.56%. Most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci (CONS), E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of MRSA was 7.5%. The maximum frequency was among patients operated on emergency basis in surgical department. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>The most important determinants for SSI were emergency surgery and presence of co-morbid conditions. The frequency of occurrence was age-dependent, with maximum rate of SSI in males and females in the third and sixth decades of life, respectively. </em></p> Kapil Sharda Copyright (c) 2020 Kapil Sharda Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Evaluation of Maternal Mortality Ratio in a Known Area: An Institutional Based Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>India is responsible for the second-highest number of maternal deaths worldwide.&nbsp;India’s MMR has been steadily declining since the 1990s.The present study was conducted to evaluate the maternal mortality ratio in a known area.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A study was conducted to evaluate the maternal mortality ratio in a known area. Maternal deaths were analysed using a preformed data collection tool called Maternal Death review form. The maternal mortality ratio can be calculated by dividing recorded (or estimated) maternal deaths by total recorded (or estimated) live births in the same period and multiplying by 100,000. The recorded data was compiled, and data analysis was done using SPSS Version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study a total 35 cases of maternal mortality were present. Maternal deaths according to age shows that maximum maternal deaths were in the age group 24-29yrs, followed by 36-40 yrs. 35 maternal deaths occurred amongst 9020 live births. Maternal mortality Ratio was 388.02.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; The present study concluded that 35 cases of maternal mortality. Maximum maternal deaths were in the age group 24-29yrs. Maternal mortality Ratio was 388.02.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Preeti Jain, Priyanka P. Kamble, Hemendra Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Preeti Jain, Priyanka P. Kamble, Hemendra Singh Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Prospective Study on Nailing in Isolated, Closed Diaphyseal Fractures of Femur in Children <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>It is well known that femoral shaft fractures are the most common children injuries treated by orthopedic surgeons. This type of fracture happens in 1–2% of all fractures in the children population. The treatment has usually been age-related, influenced by the location and type of the fracture and associated injuries.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong><em>In this study we were included 220 children of 5-16 year with isolated, closed; diaphyseal fractures of femur undergoing closed reduction and internal fixation with TENS nails. This study was conducted in Department of Orthopedics.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This result revealed that prevalence of age group was 9-12 (102) followed by other age group. We were seen that in 100 cases causes of fracture was due to fall &amp; in 120 cases causes of fracture due to RTA.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>It can be conclude that TENs allowed rapid mobilization, minimizes the probability of physeal infections, injury and offer quick healing.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anilkumar Bapugouda Patil Copyright (c) 2020 Anilkumar Bapugouda Patil Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Evaluate the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Severity of Knee Pain in Osteoarthritis Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a leading cause of disability among the aged population worldwide. A positive association between obesity or being overweight and increased risk of KOA has been shown in numerous studies. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the correlation between BMI and severity of knee pain in osteoarthritis patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>A total of 150 patients with confirmed radiographic and clinical diagnosis of knee OA were included. BMI was calculated and all the patients were divided into three study groups based on BMI as follows- Group A: BMI less than 25 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>, Group B: BMI between 25 Kg/m<sup>2</sup> to 30 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>, and Group C: BMI more than 30 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>, For assessing the pain intensity, visual analogue scale (VAS) was used. VAS was scored on the scale of zero to ten with zero indicating no pain and ten indicating most severe unbearable pain. Pain was further graded into three classes on the basis of VAS as follows-Mild pain: VAS score of less than 3, Moderate pain: VAS score between 4 to 6, and Severe pain: VAS score of more than 6. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among group A patients, incidence of moderate pain was 58 percent while of mild pain was 24 percent. Among group B patients, incidence of moderate pain was 44 percent while of mild pain was 20 percent. Among group C patients, incidence of severe pain was 58 percent while of moderate pain was 32 percent. Significant increase in incidence of pain was seen in obese patients in comparison to non-obese patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>BMI is significantly correlated with severity of pain of KOA patients. Also, higher pain was associated with higher BMI.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ramesh Kumar, Ankush Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Karan Maggo, Ankesh Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Ramesh Kumar, Ankush Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Karan Maggo, Ankesh Jain Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis of Isolated Soft Tissue and Intramuscular Cysticercosis Using High Resolution Ultrasonography <p>Background: In Cysticercosis, the extraneural tissues are usually involved synchronously or metachronously with the brain. Isolated infestation of soft tissue and muscle in the absence of neural involvement found more commonly than previously known. High resolution ultrasonography has emerged now as an investigation of choice with proven sonological patterns of soft tissue cysticercosis which can entirely negate the need for invasive interventions.</p> <p>Methods: This Prospective study was conducted on total 6 cases of extraneural cysticercosis over a period of 5 months at Department of&nbsp;Radio diagnosis, Rajshree Medical Institute, Bareilly<em>.</em>​ HRUSG analysis of 6 cases was done to evaluate and classify the various classic sonomorphological features of isolated cysticercosis involving soft tissue and muscles. FNAC was done only in 2 cases.</p> <p>Results: Around 6 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 6 cases, 2 were male and 4 were female patients. Two individuals were vegetarian and four were found to be non-vegetarian. Mean age was 39 years. All cases were diagnosed with the help of HRUSG. Intramuscular lesion was identified in 4 cases and 2 cases had subcutaneous involvement with anterior abdominal wall in muscular plane as the commonest site in two patients. FNAC was done in 2 cases confirming the cysticercosis and was treated surgically.</p> <p>Conclusions: We conclude that with the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yogendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Yogendra Kumar Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000