International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> en-US (Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD) (Mohd Waseem) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Study to Find out Correlation of Thyroid Hormone among COPD patients: A Hospital Based Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide Abnormalities in thyroid hormone regulation are encountered frequently in nonthyroidal diseases. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the correlation of thyroid hormone among COPD patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> In the present study, a total of 200 patients were enrolled, which were diagnosed to be suffering from COPD. Complete medical history and family history of all the subjects was also obtained. Blood samples were taken from all the patients and were sent to laboratory for assessment of thyroid profile. COPD patients were divided into four stages as follows: Stage 1- Mild, Stage 2- Moderate, Stage 3- Severe, and Stage 4- Very Severe. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analyzed by SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Thyroid dysfunction was found to be present in 47 patients (23.5 percent of patients). Among 200 COPD patients, 52, 45, 50 and 53 patients were of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Among 53 patients of stage 4, thyroid dysfunction was found to be present in 33.96 percent of the patients. Among 50 patients of stage 3, thyroid dysfunction was found to be present in 24 percent of the patients. Among 45 patients of stage 2, thyroid dysfunction was found to be present in 20 percent of the patients. Among 52 patients of stage 1, thyroid dysfunction was found to be present in 15.38 percent of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thyroid dysfunction is a serious health problem affecting more commonly in patients with stage 3 and stage 4 COPD.</p> Veerbhan Singh, Gajendra Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Veerbhan Singh, Gajendra Singh Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:31:20 +0000 Estimate the Relationship on Haemoglobin, Serum Iron & Vitamin B12: A Prospective Observational Study. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anaemia is a global public health problem which affects both the developing and the developed countries and it is an indicator of poor nutrition and poor health with major consequences for human health, as well as for the social and economic development of a population. Anemia is a common problem throughout the world and iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. The purpose of the study is to estimate the relationship on Haemoglobin, Serum Iron &amp; Vitamin B12.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A hospital based, Prospective observational study was carried out at Vedantaa Institute of Medical Sciences, Palghar. Hemoglobin, Serum Iron &amp; Vitamin B12 was done for 100% sample of enrolled of the Vedantaa Institute of Medical Sciences, Palghar at the age between 11 to 98 years. Statistics was carried out the estimate the relationship on Haemoglobin, Serum Iron &amp; Vitamin B12.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis of the obtained data was based on the objective of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis and data interpretation. Results of the study revealed that 34.9% of the samples are males and 65.1% of the samples are female. 14.3% of the samples are in the age group of less than 11.8 to 36.8 years, 52.4% of samples were in the group of 36.8 to 61.8 years, 30.2% of samples were in the group of 61.8 to 86.8 years and 3.2% of samples are more than 86.8 years of age. After analysis and interpretation of data, it was found that out of boys 34.8% males were anaemic and out of females 65.2% females were anaemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of anemia in the developing countries tends to be three to four times higher than in the developed countries. Hence, improvement in dietary habits related to consumption of green leafy vegetables should be included in diet plan. Health education, seminars on menstrual hygiene should be conducted at regular intervals.</p> Swapnil Shinkar, Amol Ghule, Mayur Pangare Copyright (c) 2019 Swapnil Shinkar, Amol Ghule, Mayur Pangare Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:17:59 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Indices of the Liver Function Tests in Patients with and without Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease at a Teaching Hospital in Hapur <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide health concern with increase in the global incidence of obesity and it is now considered the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Aims and Objective: </strong></p> <p>The study’s aim was to compare the indices of the Liver Function tests in compensated chronic liver disease patients with and without NAFLD.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;A total of 100 consecutive patients with compensated chronic liver disease were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain relevant socio-demographic data. NAFLD was diagnosed based on clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and in a few histological features. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to identify patients with the metabolic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>In our study, 100 participants were recruited into study. 40 out of 60 patients (67%) showed grade-1 fatty liver findings and 20 out of 60 patients (33%) showed grade-2 fatty liver. Approximately 19% had fatty liver finding. The&nbsp;mean&nbsp;(SD)&nbsp;age&nbsp;of&nbsp;persons&nbsp;with&nbsp;NAFLD&nbsp;was&nbsp;45.12&nbsp;(±8.07)&nbsp;years&nbsp;compared&nbsp; to&nbsp;47.49(±11.79)&nbsp;years&nbsp;for&nbsp;persons&nbsp;without&nbsp;NAFLD.&nbsp;The&nbsp;difference&nbsp;was&nbsp;not&nbsp;statistically&nbsp;significant&nbsp;(p=0.2).&nbsp;Body&nbsp;mass&nbsp;index&nbsp;(BMI),&nbsp;central&nbsp;obesity&nbsp;(waist&nbsp;circumference),&nbsp;fasting&nbsp; blood&nbsp;sugar,&nbsp;blood&nbsp;pressure,&nbsp;total&nbsp;cholesterol&nbsp;and&nbsp;triglycerides&nbsp;were&nbsp;significantly&nbsp;higher&nbsp;in&nbsp; the&nbsp;NAFLD&nbsp;group&nbsp;(p=&nbsp;&lt;0.05)&nbsp;respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Indices of the deranged Liver functions were more prevalent in persons with NAFLD. It is recommended that patients with NAFLD be screened for metabolic syndrome and appropriate therapy instituted to decrease the risk of both hepatic and cardiovascular complications.</p> Ujjwal Kumar, Mohit Gupta, Prabhat Chaudhary, Anil Kumar Kem, Vivek Sinha Copyright (c) 2019 Ujjwal Kumar, Mohit Gupta, Prabhat Chaudhary, Anil Kumar Kem, Vivek Sinha Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:23:35 +0000 To Study the Culture Conversion and XDR Suspect of Cat-IV Patients in DOTS Plus Site, S. N. Medical College, Agra <p><em>BACKGROUND -</em> Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an increasing health problem in India. Globally,3.5% of new TB cases and 18% of previously treated cases had MDR/RR-TB.(GLOBAL TUBERCULOSIS REPORT 2018). As per the India TB Report 2018 the estimated incidence of&nbsp; MDRTB/RR in India was approximately 1,47,000.Outcome of MDR patient put on MDR regime is poor due to high cost, long duration of treatment, and various side effect of second line ATT.</p> <p>MATERIAL &amp; METHOD - Study comprised patients who were diagnosed MDR by culture and DST method from RNTCP accredited lab and initiated CAT–IV treatment in D.R.TB Centre, Department of Tuberculosis &amp; Chest Diseases, S. N. Medical College, Agra. Detailed history and pre clinical evaluation as per guideline were done and at the end of 3<sup>rd</sup> ,4<sup>th</sup>,5<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; and 6<sup>th</sup> month sputum &nbsp;were send for AFB staining and culture.</p> <p>RESULT – Out of 109 MDR patient put on CAT-IV, culture conversion at 3<sup>rd</sup> month occur in 52(47.70%) &nbsp;patients, at 4<sup>th</sup> month in 58 patients (53.21%), and in 5<sup>th</sup> month 66 patients (60.55%). Out of 109 MDR TB patients 12 patients (11.01%) were found suspected XDR.</p> <p>CONCLUSION – MDR TB is major health problem worldwide. Due to less efficacy and more side effect of second line ATT, longer duration of treatment, MDR TB is difficult to treat even with free supply of ATT through DOTS PLUS. Close attention is needed for early diagnosis&nbsp; of MDR TB , and adequate clinically monitoring of during treatment is essential.</p> Santosh Kumar, Rehbar Khan Copyright (c) 2019 Santosh Kumar, Rehbar Khan Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:48:06 +0000 Comparison between Diagnostic Yield of Pleural Fluid ELISPOT and Thoracoscopic Guided Pleural Biopsy in Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion <p><strong>Context: </strong>Despite recent advances in the available diagnostic modalities, diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis remains a&nbsp;challenge because of the low yield of conventional methods. Pleural biopsy is the gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis, which is invasive and cumbersome. The concentration of mycobacterial peptide-specific activated lymphocytes at the site of infection can be utilized as the basis for using IGRA (interferon-gamma release assays) based evaluation of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the performance of IGRA (Enzyme-linked Immunospot (ELISPOT) in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in histopathologically confirmed cases.</p> <p><strong>Settings and Design: </strong>A prospective observational study compared the utility of ELISPOT with thoracoscopy guided pleural biopsies for the diagnosis of tubercular pleural effusions.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Material: </strong>Forty-two consecutive cases of undiagnosed pleural effusions were enrolled and subjected to thoracoscopy guided pleural biopsy. Thirteen patients were confirmed to have tuberculosis, 27 had malignancy, and 2 had normal pleura. A total of 1x10<sup>3 </sup>pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) were cultured in the presence of early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) for 24 hours. The individual spots were then counted using an automated analyzer ELISPOT reader system.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The number of spots developed in the pleural fluid was significantly higher in tubercular&nbsp;pleural effusions as compared to non-tubercular&nbsp;effusions (CFP-10:154.76±14.61 vs 49.24±8.9; ESAT-6: 150.3±17.27 v/s 45.34±8.23, p&lt;0.001). At a cut-off value of more than 67 spots taken as positive for tuberculosis, the sensitivity of the test was 100% (95% CI 75.29% to 100.00%), specificity was 96.5% (95 % CI 82.24% to 99.91%), positive predictive value was 92.86% (95 % CI 65.45% to 98.89%) and negative predictive value was 100%.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>ELISPOT can be a useful non-invasive test for the evaluation of undiagnosed pleural effusions and making a diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis with confidence.</p> Zia Hashim, Mansi Gupta, Alok Nath, Ajmal Khan, Ravi Mishra, Harshit Singh, Vikas Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Zia Hashim, Mansi Gupta, Alok Nath, Ajmal Khan, Ravi Mishra, Harshit Singh, Vikas Agarwal Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:14:33 +0000 A Prospective Study on Predictive Value of Absolute Eosinophil Count for Bronchodilator Reversibility in COPD Patients <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are prone to exacerbation that account for significant morbidity and mortality. According to physio-pathologic and clinical-functional viewpoints, bronchiectasis and COPD have some common characteristics, it has been observed that bronchiectasis was present in up to 50% of patients with moderate to severe COPD . This observation suggests that COPD is a risk factor for bronchiectasis.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>This study was included 120 totals who were attending the OPD in the department of TB Chest. This study was conducted in the Department of TB &amp; Respiratory Diseases, Shri Dev Suman Subharti Medical College, Dehradun.</p> <p><strong>RESULT:</strong> In our study we were included 120 total number of cases, out of all cases 35.5% cases were found from eosinophilic COPD group &amp; 62.5% were found non-eosinophilic COPD group. In eosinophilic COPD group,42 male and 3 females were found. While in non-eosinophilic COPD group ,60 male and 15 females were found.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This study suggested that flow reversibility associated with this volume reversibility was more in eosinophilic COPD.</p> Deepak Kumar Kalra Copyright (c) 2019 Deepak Kumar Kalra Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:31:04 +0000 A Comparative Study on Elderly Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on the Basis of Radiological & Microbiological findings in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p>INTRODUCTION:- the present study was planned and the aim of the present study was to compare the clinical, radiological and laboratory manifestations of PTB among geriatric patients. The biological changes associated with aging, associated malnutrition and acute or chronic diseases have been reported to disrupt protective barriers, contribute to the expected age-related diminution in cellular immune responses and impair microbial clearance mechanisms against Mycobacterium TB.</p> <p>METHODOLOGY:- This study analyzed the 100 elderly pulmonary tuberculosis cases. This study was conducted in the Department of TB &amp; Respiratory Diseases, Shri Dev Suman Subharti Medical College, Dehradun.</p> <p>The duration of study was over a period of two year.</p> <p>RESULTS:- In the present study, 85% people had cough, 92% fever, 42%anorexia, 30% chest pain, 21% hemoptysis, 52% weakness. In the sputum microscopy, 23% negative, 11% scanty, 22% 1+, 25% 2+,19% 3+ we were found according to grading of RNTCP.</p> <p>CONCLUSION:- Elderly patients of PTB presented with recognized clinical and radiological features of disease, but a fair number had to be prescribed nonstandard regimens.</p> Deepak Kumar Kalra Copyright (c) 2019 Deepak Kumar Kalra Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:50:15 +0000 A Prospective Study on Association of Social Anxiety in Patients Suffering from Various Clinical Presentations of Acne Vulgaris <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Acne vulgaris is a common illness of adolescence. During adolescence, the importance of body image and the cosmetic problems that this illness may cause, it is important that the level of social anxiety should be studied in acne patients.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>100 acne vulgaris cases were included in this study. This study conducted in the department of Psychiatry in Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre. The duration of study over a period of six month. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This study showed that amongst acne patients having social anxiety majority had acne lesions localized on face (36,7%), almost all had clinically very severe (100%) acne and none of them subjectively perceived their acne lesions as mild.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that, clinician's evaluation is objective and more precise and valuable, but the self-perception of a patient has a greater effect on his/her psychological condition.</em></p> Bharat Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Bharat Agarwal Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:44:04 +0000 A Study to Predict Difficult Intubation Using Simple Non-invasive test: A Prospective Observational Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Airway Management is prime importance to the anaesthesiologist of all the anaesthetic deaths 30 % to 40 % are attributed to the inability to manage a difficult airway. The various simple bedside predictors of difficult airway like Mallampati test, Upper lip bite test, Thyromental, Hyomental, Thyrosternal &amp; Sternomental distances, mandibular length, Neck circumferences etc. are easy to perform with No extra cost or inconvenience to patients. <strong>Aim</strong>: To assess the predictability of Upper lip bite test, Hyomental distance, Thyromental distance, Thyrosternal distance &amp; Mandibular length. <strong>Objective</strong>: 1) To find out the best predictor of difficult intubation amongst the Upper Lip Bite Test, Hyomental Distance, Thyromental Distance, Thyrosternal Distance &amp; Mandibular Length on the basis of the test. </em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This is a prospective observational study of 110 patients are randomly selected &amp; age caring between 20 to 59 yrs both male and female are presented in anaesthesia of routine per anaesthetic check-up. After from mouth opening &amp; mallampati test which are routinely done airway assessment included ULBT, HMD, TMD, TSD &amp; ML will be done.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>After analysing study state that the age (P = 0.031) were significant , &amp; sex (P = 0.213) ASA (P = 0.091) were not significant with difficult intubation on the basis of Cormack lehane grading. All these factors were applicant on next set of 110 patients to found sensitivity &amp; specificity to be ULBT ( SE = 50.00%, SP =100.00%), HMD (SE = 10.00%, SP = 97.00%), TSD (SE = 0.00%, SP = 97.00%), ML (SE = 20.00%, SP = 97.00%) &amp; TMD (SE = 70.00%, SP = 85.00%) respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Thyromental distance is the most important sensitive factors predicting difficult intubation on the basis of cormack lehane grading in indian patients.</em></p> Asha Attar, Ravindra Gandhi Copyright (c) 2019 Asha Attar, Ravindra Gandhi Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:57:11 +0000 A Comparative Analysis on Anesthetic Requirement and Peri-Operative Hemodynamic Stress Response after a Single Dose of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl: A Hospital Based Study <p>Introduction:- Fentanyl which is a short acting, synthetic opioid delivers cardiac stability at therapeutic doses and effectively blocks the sympathetic stress response to surgical stimulus. It also provides further hemodynamic stability<strong>. </strong>The Bispectral Index (BIS) is a derived electroencephalographic parameter. It has been widely validated as a monitor for depth of anesthesia.</p> <p>Methodology:- 99 patients of either sex, between age Group of 18 – 60 years, ASA Grade I and Grade II, scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were randomly selected and included in this study. The duration of study was over a period of one year. This study was conducted in the <em>Dept. of Anaesthesiology, Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre. </em></p> <p>Result:- In this study we were included two groups. 34% male &amp; 66% female were included in Group I. While in Group 2 33% male &amp; 67% female were included. Baseline characteristics of both the groups were not significantly different. There were no significant differences in age &amp; sex&amp; mean duration of surgery between two groups.(p&gt;0.05 )</p> <p>Conclusion:- This study colludes that, it was inferred that Fentanyl can also help to attenuate laryngoscopic stress response, as the rise in hemodynamics after laryngoscopy and intubation was within the normal limits of heart rate.</p> Suman Kaushik, Ravi Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Suman Kaushik, Ravi Shah Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:37:57 +0000 A Study of Management of Hepatic Abscess by Percutaneous Catheter Drainage <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Aim and Objectives: To distinguish the efficacy of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) approaches in the management of hepatic abscess.<br>Methods: In this study, 60 cases of liver abscess were taken with age group between 25-60 years. Study was done in surgery department of government hospital Sikar from October 2014 to September 2016. All cases were registered satisfied the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Group A was given conservative treatment and Group B was given percutaneous catheter drainage. Results were analyzed statistically.</p> <p>Results: ‘it was revealed in this study that mostly males were there, 55 out of 60 cases. The most frequent complaint was abdominal pain and tenderness in right hypochondrium in 85% of the cases. The average hospital stay for patients in group B was 5 days as compared to 7 days in group A. Pain relieved in just 4 days in group B as compared to group A, it was 6 days.</p> <p>Conclusions: Percutaneous catheter drainage is a successful option of treatment in hepatic abscess as compared to conservative management.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> B S Garhwal, Jyoti Garhwal, Kapil Dev Chahar, Pooja Garhwal Copyright (c) 2019 B S Garhwal, Jyoti Garhwal, Kapil Dev Chahar, Pooja Garhwal Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:21:41 +0000 Prevalence of Cholelithiasis amongst Patients Undergoing Abdominal Ultrasound <p>Background: Cholelithiasis is a global issue and it remains a common reason for surgical management, underwriting substantially to health the care costs. The aim of the present study was to determine subjects with gall stones coming to the department for ultrasound.</p> <p>Materials and methods: The present cross sectional observational study was conducted amongst subjects aged more than 15 years reporting to the hospital for abdominal ultrasound. Prevalence of the gallbladder outcomes was measured as percentages with 95% confidence intervals.&nbsp; All the data thus obtained was arranged in a tabulated form and analyzed using SPSS software.</p> <p>Results: There were a total of 2000 subjects in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 46.72+/-3.89 years. There were 91% (1820) with no abnormalities in gall bladder. Gallstones were seen amongst 5% (100) subjects.</p> <p>Conclusion: The prevalence of gall stones in the present study was 5%. There is a need to create substantial awareness amongst subjects regarding this disease as majority of this is asymptomatic.</p> Aseem Trikha Copyright (c) 2019 Aseem Trikha Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:25:34 +0000 Assessment of Burn Cases Visited in Hospital for Surgical Treatment <p><strong>Background:</strong> Burns can be very destructive, and severely endanger the health and lives of humans. It maybe causes disability and even psychological trauma in individuals. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing burn cases visited in hospital for surgical treatment.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: A total of 269 burn patients were enrolled in the present study. Complete demographic profile and clinical details of all the patients was obtained. All the patients were segregated into various socio-economic classes on the basis of Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Swabs were taken from the burn areas and were inoculated into culture media for assessing the growing microorganisms. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean hospital stay was found to be 39.6 days. Conservative treatment without surgical intervention was done in 187 patients while surgical treatment was done in 82 patients. Most common microorganism growing in the burn areas were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp. and Escherichia coli.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Burn patients should be initially conservatively managed by adequate resuscitation, early wound debridement and closure.</p> R D Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 R D Sharma Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:34:33 +0000 A Study of Septorhinoplasty by Open Technique <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>This study aimed to assess the reasons for which patients seek rhinoplasty, viz aesthetic, functional and psychosocial reasons. The study included 20 patients with traumatic, infective and congenital nasal deformities and were taken up for open septorhinoplasty.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was carried out in the Department of Surgery at Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. The duration of study was from April 2017 to May 2018. It was a prospective study. All the patients who underwent open septorhinoplasty were assessed for outcome using Alsarraf questionnaire. Other patient data including demographic data, comorbid conditions etc were considered. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>After completion of surgeries patients were subjected to the questions of the questionnaire and final results were noted. Results were also assessed on the basis of comparative photographs, both taken pre and post operatively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Based on the conducted studies and after analysis of available literature, it may be concluded that functional and aesthetic results after open septorhinoplasty have an influence on quality of life of the patients. This study includes all the three aspects ie, aesthetic, functional and psychosocial, for which most of the patients seek rhinoplasty and the results of our study is comparable to various other studies.</em></p> Mohammad Saquib , Musharraf Husain , Nida Khan, Bhoopendra Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammad Saquib , Musharraf Husain , Nida Khan, Bhoopendra Singh Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:04:57 +0000 Incidence of Breast Lumps Encountered in the Department of Surgery: A Hospital Based Study <p>Introduction:- World Health Organization reported that there were 14.1 million new cancer cases, 8.2 million cancer deaths and 32.6 million people living with cancer within 5 years of diagnosis worldwide.</p> <p>Methodology:- Data were collected on the bases of findings of history and clinical examination. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done in patients with palpable lump in breast and suspicious lesions. Suspected cases were sent for histo pathological examination.</p> <p>Result:- Most of the cancer patients were found in the 51-55 year age group. In this study, cyto-pathological features were occur, Fibroadenoma (54%), fibroadenosis(8%), Fibrocystic disease(4%), seb. Cyst breast (2%), gynaecomastia(0%), breast abscess(12%), mastitis(0%), ductal carcinoma(18%), paget disease of nipple(2%).</p> <p>Conclusion:- benign breast lesions are more common among female population than malignant lesion, the frequency of breast cancer is increasing rapidly across the global.</p> Kiran Kumar Chaudhary, Puja Raizaday Copyright (c) 2019 Kiran Kumar Chaudhary, Puja Raizaday Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:34:54 +0000 A Prospective Study on Role of Prophylactic Antibiotics and Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection in Surgery IPD <p>Introduction:- In the advancement of surgery, post-operative wound infection has been the greatest obstacle from down the centuries. For safe surgery, Lister introduced antiseptic methods. The initiation of antibiotics did raise the hope of a permanent solution to post-operative infection but later it has become the nightmare of the surgeon.</p> <p>Methodology:- Two groups were included in this study. Each group had 200 cases. This study conducted by department of Surgery in Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Rajsamand. The duration of the study over a period of one and half year.</p> <p>Result:- In our study, two groups were included, each group has 200 cases. In group A we had found 7% cases infected out of 200 cases, while in Group B had 34% infected cases out of total number of cases. Out of all cases we were found maximum infected cases from 41-50 ages in both groups.</p> <p>Conclusion:- This study conclude that, to prevent surgical-site infections, it is essential for the surgeons to take appropriate steps to avoid local microbial factors.</p> Mohammed Ashraf Khan Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammed Ashraf Khan Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:58:35 +0000 A Prospective Analytical Study on PCOD Women with Reference to Clinical, Biochemical and Ultrasound Parameters <p>INTRODUCTION: - The clinical signs and symptoms of PCOS also vary among ethnic groups. The reason could be due to differences in lifestyle, dietary factors, genetic and biochemical composition. As the etiopathogenesis of this syndrome still seems to be unclear, a common definition and proper treatment plan for PCOS does not exist.</p> <p>METHODOLOGY: - 100 total number of cases were included in this study. This study was carried in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, Punjab</p> <p>RESULT:- In the present study showed highly significant Pearson correlation between LH/FSH &amp; FT3, LH/FSH &amp; TSH, Serum prolactin &amp; TSH.</p> <p>CONCLUSION:-This study was suggested that, TVS is the most the important diagnostic tool and serum LH/FSH ratio was secondary tool.</p> Pradeep Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Pradeep Sharma Mon, 30 Sep 2019 20:04:56 +0000 Various Modalities for Fixation of Fracture Supracondylar Humerus in Pediatric Age Group <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The objective of the present study is to analyze &amp; compare various modalities available for management of fracture supracondylar humerus in pediatric population.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present prospective study was conducted in the department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology&nbsp; Ananta institute of medical sciences and research centre, Rajsamand from December 2015 to April 2018.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study we found that in Grade II and III supracondylar fracture of humerus in children closed reduction is difficult&nbsp; to achieve and is complicated by&nbsp; slippage&nbsp; of reduction leading to fixation with k-wires in early presentation or malunion&nbsp; deformity in cases of late presentation and vascular comprise if excessive flexion is done to hold reduction. While Grade I fracture can effectively be managed with closed reduction &amp; cast with caution of maintaining reduction.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: In this study we found that results of displaced supracondylar fracture of humerus presenting can be effectively best treated by closed reduction with percutaneous pinning because patients who were treated conservatively developed deformities more than closed reduction and internal fixation group. Patients with cross k-wire fixation from either condyle has better outcome as compared to lateral entry cross k-wire fixation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Vishal Shinde Copyright (c) 2019 Vishal Shinde Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:44:43 +0000 Role of Teriparatide Vs Zoledronic Acid in Osteoporosis as well as in Pathological Fractures due to Osteoporosis <p><strong>Background-</strong>Present prospective study is intended to compare role of Teriparatide and Zoledronic acid in osteoporosis as well as in pathological fracture due to osteoporosis so as to help elderly postmenopausal women to combat with osteoporosis &amp; complications arising due to it.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods-</strong>This study is carried out in Pacific Medical College &amp; Hospital,Udaipur in the department of orthopedics from Dec. 2107 to June 2019.Total of 100 women were included at the time of beginning but 20 women were lost in the follow up due to various reasons.51 patients of group 1 were given Zoledronic acid &amp; 29 patients were given Teriparatide.Patients were evaluated upto 12 months at regular intervals. Serial DEXA scans were done,assessment &amp; comparison were done accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong>Treatment of osteoporosis is multimodal with no definitive single molecule available.This study compared Zoledronic acid &amp; Teriparatide.Although T-score has nearly the same value but our study resulted in increase BMD score &amp; fewer side effects by the use of Teriparatide so it is concluded that patient with very low BMD requires treatment with Teriparatide.</p> Vinod Kumar Nagar, Vishal Shinde Copyright (c) 2019 Vinod Kumar Nagar, Vishal Shinde Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:27:17 +0000 A Prospective Study on Association Between Deviated Nasal Septum and Sinusitis in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Chronic sinusitis (CS) is an extremely prevalent disorder. It affects up to two percent of the world population. It has a significant impact on the quality of life of people [2]. Basically, the word “sinusitis</em><em>‟</em><em> refers to a group of disorders characterized by inflammation of mucosa of nose and paranasal sinuses. Deviated Nasal septum is one of the most common disorder that presents up to 62% of the population. Its role in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis remains uncertain.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Two groups were included in this study .Each group had 30 cases with Midline nasal septum &amp; Deviated nasal septum. This study conducted in the Department. of ENT, Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Hapur. The duration of the study was over a period of six month.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>We were studied two groups, 30 cases involved in group I of Midline nasal septum and in group II 30 cases involved with Deviated nasal septum. In this study we showed symptom &amp; sign of rhinoscopy. In the group I, 14 cases had congested nasal mucosa followed by 10 cases of nasal discharge, 4 cases of inferior turbinate hypertrophy &amp; 2 cases of Middle turbinate hypertrophy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: that management of chronic maxillary sinusitis should include simultaneous treatment of any anatomical variation. For treating chronic sinusitis along with deviated nasal septum, nowadays treatment of choice is Septoplasty along with Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). FESS technique is used for managing sinus infection and ostial obstruction.</em></p> Abhijeet Kumar Sinha Copyright (c) 2019 Abhijeet Kumar Sinha Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:55:11 +0000 Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Normal Optic Nerve Sheath and Optic Nerve Diameter in Eastern Indian Paediatric Population- A Retrospective Study. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of orbits in healthy paediatric population is difficult as it involves sedation or general anaesthesia in most of the cases. The data of normal value of healthy paediatric optic nerve and optic nerve sheath diameter is also scant in literatures for Indian paediatric population.&nbsp; The normal data will help in defining abnormal optic nerve such as congenital optic nerve hypoplasia, optic nerve atrophy and distended optic nerve sheath in raised intracranial pressure. <strong>AIM: </strong>The aim of our retrospective study is to define the normal value of optic nerve and optic nerve sheath diameter in MRI of paediatric Indian population. <strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS:</strong>190 MRI studies of paediatric brain with normal radiology reports and no history of raised intracranial pressure were retrospectively reviewed by two senior radiologists using T2 weighted axial brain images. <strong>RESULT</strong>: The mean optic sheath diameter and optic nerve diameter of 380 eye balls were 4.746 and 2.59 mm respectively. The age wise distribution of optic sheath diameter and optic nerve diameter were 4.08±0.019, 2.05±0.608 in 0-2-year age group, 4.83±0.575, 2.54±0.456 in 3-6-year age group, 4.789±0.553, 2.704±0.447 in 7-12-year age group, and 4.82±0.567, 2.65±0.412 in 13-18 years age group in mean (mm)±standard deviations respectively. Three hundred seventy-one (97%) optic sheath measurement of the 380 eye balls was below the threshold of 6 mm and about 352 (92%) optic nerve measurements out of 380 globes were having optic nerve thickness above 2 mm.&nbsp; This normative data will help the ophthalmologist, clinician, neuro-ophthalmologist and radiologists for better quantitative evaluation of pediatric patient with vision abnormality.</p> Manoranjan Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Saroj Ranjan Sahoo, Manoj Kumar G Copyright (c) 2019 Manoranjan Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Saroj Ranjan Sahoo, Manoj Kumar G Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:10:27 +0000 Multidetector Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Fractures in Eastern Indian Population: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Background</strong>. The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of mandibular fracture in eastern Indian population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective study of 92 computed tomographic examination imaging data showing mandibular fractures during the period from January 2016 to June 2019 were retrieved from radiology data storage and was evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically. <strong>Result</strong>-The study revealed 83 (90.2%) male and 9 (9.8%) female cases with mean age 34.3 and male female ratio 11.8/1. The most common cause of injury was road traffic accident. The most common fracture sites were parasymphyseal location (92%) followed by mandibula body fracture. The mandibular fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The most common cause of mandibular fracture in eastern Indian population was RTA. The parasymphyseal fracture is the most common type of mandibular fracture.</p> Manoranjan Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Manoj Kumar G, Roopak Dubey Copyright (c) 2019 Manoranjan Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Manoj Kumar G, Roopak Dubey Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:51:17 +0000 Neurohistological Changes in the Spinal Cord of Albino Rats after Inhalational Exposure to Pyrethroid Based Mosquito Repellent <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The use of</em><em> liquid vaporizers as residential insecticides to control the problem of mosquito bites and to prevent adult, newborns and children from deadly vector borne diseases like Malaria, Dengue and chikungunya etc. is ever increasing. These products contain pyrethroid and emit parallethrin vapours when put to use at home. There are numerous side effects of these vapours like allergic sinusitis, difficulty in respiration, sleep disturbance, giddiness, headache, body ache and lethargy but the market for these product decides the outcome of all the research concerned with its safety. Histological studies can establish their toxic effects on Spinal Cord, cervical and lumbar enlargements in the White and Grey matter that forms structural continuity with the CNS. Accordingly the present&nbsp; study was planned to assess the safety of&nbsp; pyrethroid based mosquito repellent inhalational use and the histological insult to the spinal cord of&nbsp; Albino rats. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total of twenty albino rats were equally divided into control and experimental group. The experimental group was exposed&nbsp; to 3.2% w/v prallethrin vapours for total of 12 hours per day for 180 days. The control group rats was exposed to identical situation but without any exposure. The albino rats&nbsp; were sacrificed after the study period of exposure of 180 days. Spinal cord dissected., tissue processed, sectioned and stained with&nbsp; haematoxylin, eosin and thionin. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Grey matter of the spinal cord at cervical and lumbar enlargement showed numerous vacuoles with lightly stained cell body of neurons and Nissl’s dissolution with occasional inflammatory cells.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Neurohistological study, inhalational route, neurotoxicity, adult albino rats, prallethrin vapours, spinal cord.</em></p> Saim Hasan, Farida Ahmad, S Mubashir Yunus Copyright (c) 2019 Saim Hasan, Farida Ahmad, S Mubashir Yunus Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:01:45 +0000 Change in Basal Cardiac and Respiratory Parameters after Regular Practice of Bhramari Pranayama and Yoganidra in Young Medical Students <p><strong>Aim</strong>:&nbsp; The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular practice of&nbsp; Bhramari pranayama and Yoganidra for 3 months on the basal cardiac and respiratory parameters of young healthy medical students.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Previous studies support the beneficial effect of Bhramari pranayama and Yoganidra individually in hypertension and other diseases. This is a study to evaluate effect of combination of pranayama and meditation on basal cardiac and respiratory parameters in young healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Total 94 young medical students were selected who performed Bhramari Pranayama and Yoganidra for a duration of 3 months. Basal values of pulse, blood pressure and respiratory rate were recorded on each student before and after yoga.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study mean pulse rate&nbsp; before yoga&nbsp; was&nbsp; 76.39 ± 4.34 per min. and after yoga&nbsp; it reduced to 74.56 ± 3.55 per min (p &lt;0.001) .The basal systolic blood pressure before yoga was systolic 117.12 ± 4.470 mm Hg and diastolic 74.18 ± 3.884 mm Hg .After 3 months of yoga systolic reduced to 114.18 ± 4.103 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure fell to 71.37 ± 2.570 mm Hg (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p>Before yoga the mean respiratory rate was 19.25 ± 1.756 per minute which reduced to 18.16 ± 1.37 per minute (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;Bhramari&nbsp; Pranayama&nbsp; and&nbsp; Yoganidra&nbsp; significantly&nbsp; reduced pulse, blood pressure and respiratory rate.</p> Ritu Bajpai, Chanda Rajak, Sanjeev Rampalliwar Copyright (c) 2019 Ritu Bajpai, Chanda Rajak, Sanjeev Rampalliwar Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:54:11 +0000 Outcomes of Metformin on Lipid Profile of Type II Diabetes Mellitus Cases in Tertiary Care Hospital <p>INTRODUCTION:-Metformin acts mainly at the liver by reducing glucose output and secondarily, by augmenting glucose uptake in the peripheral tissues, primarily muscle. These effects are facilitated by the activation of an upstream kinase, liver kinase B1 (LKB-1), which in turn controls the downstream kinase adenosine monophosphates protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK phosphorylates a transcriptional co-activator, transducer of regulated CREB protein 2, resulting in its inactivation which consequently down regulates transcriptional events that promote synthesis of gluconeogenic enzymes</p> <p>METHODOLOGY:- 200 total numbers of cases were included of diabetic mellitus who received 1500mg/day metformin. The duration of study was one year.</p> <p>RESULT:- In results observed that decrease in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL- C and TGs. HDL-C levels were increased significantly after treatment.</p> <p>Conclusion:-</p> <p>Therefore, the findings of the present study concluded that metformin used in diabetic treatment improves lipid profile.</p> Roquiya Begum, Suhail Ahmad, Ram Binay Sinha, Farhan Usmani Copyright (c) 2019 Roquiya Begum, Suhail Ahmad, Ram Binay Sinha, Farhan Usmani Mon, 30 Sep 2019 18:41:40 +0000 A Comparative Study on Monotherapy with Metformin, Vit-B3, Vit- D, Chromium Piconilate and Lifestyle Modification in development of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in the Metabolic Syndrome Patients <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of multiple risk factors that increases an individual chance of developing cardiovascular or type II diabetes mellitus and most of people with metabolic syndrome have Insulin resistance, which elevates the risk of developing Type II diabetes mellitus. While the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and each of its components is complex and not well understood, central obesity and insulin resistance are acknowledged as important causative factors. Most scrutinized literature was collected from different sources including PubMed. This study was carried out at Govt. Chhattisgarh Institute of medical sciences Bilaspur.</p> <p>Aim: To compare the incidence of progression of metabolic syndrome into type II diabetes mellitus in patient who were put on one of the following treatments along with lifestyle modification :- Metformin, Chromium Piconilate ,Vitamin –D3 and Niacin (Vitamin. - B3).<br>Methods: The objective of this study recruited 250 patient, aged between 35 to 60 years, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria of Metabolic syndrome as per study design.</p> <p>Results: 250 Participants was enrolled during 3 years of the study. 125 (50 %) male and 125 (50 %) Female were found metabolic syndrome. A total (8%) of patient were found incidence of progression of metabolic syndrome into Type II Diabetes Mellitus. In different group as Metformin group-(0%), Niacin group (6%), Vit-D3 group (0%), Chromium Piconilate group (16 %) and (18%) in the lifestyle modification group.</p> <p>Conclusions: Metformin and Vit- D3 can reverse the effects of metabolic syndrome due to its broad effects on many of the components of metabolic syndrome; thus preventing diabetes and heart disease.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Sanjay Banjare, Vinod Kapoor Copyright (c) 2019 Sanjay Banjare, Vinod Kapoor Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:39:40 +0000 A Cross Sectional Study of Drug Utilization Pattern in Indoor Patients of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospitals in Central India <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To evaluate the pattern of drug utilization with special focus on the use of antimicrobials. <strong>METHODS</strong>: Single day hospital-wide point prevalence survey was conducted to assess drug utilization pattern.&nbsp; Information regarding age, gender, occupation, income group, diagnosis, patient’s present/past medical history, treatment, any adverse drug reactions, and investigations were recorded in a proforma. Drug utilization pattern was evaluated using quality indicators of drug use recommended by WHO. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> A total of 77 patients were included, 62% male and 38% female. Maximum number of patients was admitted for infectious diseases (34%). Pantoprazole was most commonly prescribed drug &amp; ceftriaxone was most commonly prescribed antibiotic. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 4.87.&nbsp; Oral route was the most preferred route. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 42.44%. Percentage of drugs prescribed from essential medical list was 49.33%. Multivitamins &amp; non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were most commonly prescribed fixed dose combination in our study.&nbsp; <strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: Majority of drugs were prescribed by oral route. Essential medical list and updated guidelines were available in the hospital. Poly-pharmacy, over use of proton-pump inhibitors &amp; multivitamins was areas of concern. Prolonged and irrational use of antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis was noted in surgical indoor patients. There was underutilization of microbiological facilities. &nbsp;</p> Ahmad Najmi, S Balakrishnan, Ratinder Jhaj, Shubham Atal, Pooja Singh, Sunil Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 Ahmad Najmi, S Balakrishnan, Ratinder Jhaj, Shubham Atal, Pooja Singh, Sunil Kumar Mon, 30 Sep 2019 20:01:52 +0000 Complications in Previous/Index Pregnancies: A Predictor of Utilization of Maternal Health Services <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Maternal mortality is on decline throughout the world, and still India accounts for around 15% maternal mortality of the world. Most of these deaths are preventable and avoidable if high quality care is given to a women. In order to achieve this it is very essential to examine healthcare needs and identify the demand side barriers in access to healthcare services by the women of reproductive age group. The study was thus planned to assess the current level of utilization of maternal health care services and factors associated with it.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This descriptive, community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of urban health training centre (UHTC) of Department of Community Medicine, J N Medical College, AMU, Aligarh. It was carried out on 211 recently delivered women and the data was analysed using SPSS20.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>More than 27%women reported some kind of complication in their last pregnancy. The commonest complications were found to be Anemia and Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Significant number of women in our study recognised the need of utilizing MCH care only after experiencing complications.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>A large number of women suffer from complications during pregnancy and complications like anemia go unnoticed, which can have grave complications. Most of the women opt for health care only if they had suffered from any complication during the last pregnancy.</em></p> Poonam Kushwaha, Saira Mehnaz , M Athar Ansari, Salman Khalil, Ali Jafar Abedi Copyright (c) 2019 Poonam Kushwaha, Saira Mehnaz , M Athar Ansari, Salman Khalil, Ali Jafar Abedi Mon, 30 Sep 2019 19:07:04 +0000 The Naval Stone: A hidden culprit for umbilical abscess <p>A rarely encountered benign entity, the omphalolith has been endowed several names like omphalo-keratolith, umbilical bolus and naval stone. We hereby discuss two cases of omphalolith who presented with secondary infection and infra-umbilical sepsis.</p> Natasha ., Farhanul Huda, Sudhir Kumar Singh, Jyoti Sharma, Ashikesh Kundal, Bhargav Gajula Copyright (c) 2019 SUDHIR KUMAR SINGH, Farhanul Huda, Natasha Natasha Mon, 30 Sep 2019 20:10:55 +0000