International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan en-US International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2454-9886 A Prospective Study on Hypertension with Reference to Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors in Age Group of 30-50 years <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: High blood pressure is a main risk factor for chronic heart disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Apart from coronary heart disease and stroke, its complications include heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, renal impairment, retinal hemorrhage, and visual impairment. Methods: In this study 147 total number of cases were included. This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine in a tertiary care centre. Results: In our study, we were included 147 cases. Among all cases we found that 28 cases were hypertensive. In our study, 40 were male in which 10 cases was hypertensive &amp; 107 were female out of which 18 cases was hypertensive. Higher rate of hypertensive showed by 46-50 age group which was 11 cases followed by among all age groups of cases.</p> <p>Conclusions: It observed that factors such as age, sex, per capita per month income, type of family are associated with hypertension whereas education and religion showed no association with the hypertension.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Bharat Kumar Kalra Anupam Seth Copyright (c) 2020 Bharat Kumar Kalra, Anupam Seth 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 GM1 GM3 A Prospective Study on Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Cardiovascular disease comprises CAD such as angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, and thromboembolic disease. High blood pressure caused in 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco results in 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study included 411 cases who were diabetic &amp; non diabetic. This study conducted in the Department of Medicine.</em> <strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The findings show a strong evidence of associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 specific cardiovascular disease outcomes differ in terms of direction and magnitude of effects. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Our findings indicate the risks of incident peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, and stable angina in people with type 2 diabetes, that vary in preventive strategies and that often are poorly characterized in the primary endpoint of randomized trials.</em></p> Saurabh Goel Ashish Agarwal Copyright (c) 2020 Saurabh Goel, Ashish Agarwal 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 GM4 GM6 Assessment of Prevalence of Low Testosterone Level in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Western U.P <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs either due to inadequate production of insulin or resistance to insulin action and excessive or inadequate production of glucagon. Hyperglycemia is a result of uncontrolled diabetes and over the time leads to damage to various body systems by microvascular, macrovascular and neuropathic complications. It is also seen that testosterone level was found low in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patient.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Aim and objectives: </em></strong><em>To study the prevalence of low testosterone level in men with type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to study the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its effect on daily activities of life.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was carried out in affiliated hospital of Saraswathi institute of medical sciences, Hapur in the&nbsp; Department of Medicine. 100 males of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were selected to see the prevalence of low level of testosterone. </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong><em> 100 type 2 DM patients with age above 40years were enrolled in this study to look for serum testosterone level. In 69 patients in whom HbA1C was more than 7.5% testosterone level was found low. Erectile dysfunction was observed in low testosterone groups. Association between type2 DM and hypogonadism has been studied in detail in various studies also but whether treatment of DM can treat hypogonadism or testosterone can improve glycaemic control in Diabetic patients with hypogonadism is still controversial.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: The high prevalence of both low testosterone levels and of ED should prompt the screening of all diabetic male patients older than 40 years.</em></p> Prabhat Chaudhari Ujjwal Kumar Mohit Gupta Anil Kem Vivek Sinha Copyright (c) 2020 Prabhat Chaudhari, Ujjwal Kumar, Mohit Gupta, Anil Kem, Vivek Sinha 2020-03-29 2020-03-29 6 1 GM7 GM10 A Prospective Study on Assessment of HbA1c Level and Lipid Profile in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Dyslipidaemia due to insulin resistance, the major cause of coronary atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an emerging pandemic with the number of patients increasing rapidly in both developed and developing countries around the world.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was carried out in the&nbsp; Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Udaipur. 80 males of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Enrolled patients will be</em><em> investigated for HbA1C and lipid profile. </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>In the present study, dyslipidaemia was found to be present in 85% patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, 24% had single abnormal lipid parameter while 72% had combined dyslipidaemia.. </em><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Prevalence of dyslipidaemia was alarmingly high in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Thus, HbA1C can be considered as a marker of dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. </em></p> Tushar Vasudev Vyas Copyright (c) 2020 Tushar Vasudev Vyas 2020-03-29 2020-03-29 6 1 GM11 GM13 Principal Component Analysis of Categorized Parameters Used in the Study of Diabetes Mellitus And Dyslipidaemia in Association with Carotid Intima Medial Thickness <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>The present study was attempted for multivariate analysis through principal component analysis for carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) as dependent variable compared to different independent variables used as parameters in diabetes and dyslipidaemia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The biochemical and obese data of total 75 patients were taken from earlier study. The data of six biochemical markers of DM and dyslipidaemia along with one obese marker and CIMT were analysed. Data were analysed for Pearson’s-Spearman correlation coefficients matrix for the relationships between CIMT and parameters of DM as well as dyslipidaemia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce the variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated predictor variables. Individual PC scores were generated from their risk factors loadings for DM and dyslipidaemia separately.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> <em>The DM parameters PC loadings scores, which were generated from the individual PC scores, PC-1 (97.10% of the original variation explained) resulted in relatively high loadings for FBS and PPBS, moderately loading for HbA1c, lower loadings for urea and creatinine and least loading for BMI while PC-2 (1.79% of the variation explained) was negatively loaded for the BMI and PPBS but positively loaded for FBS, creatinine, urea and HbA1c. The dyslipidaemia parameters PC loadings scores, which were also generated from the individual PC scores for dyslipidaemia, PC-1 (83.93% of the original variation explained) resulted in relatively high loadings for TC, TG and VLDL while strongly negatively loaded for the BMI and LDL-C and HDL-C but positive loaded for TC, TG and VLDL while PC-2 (7.56% of the variation explained) was strongly negatively loaded for the HDL-C and VLDL but positively loaded for LDL-C followed by TC and BMI but least loading for TG. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>This research work may be suitable tool to presents a significant step towards determining complex parameters and clinical biomarkers in DM and dyslipidaemia in association with CIMT that may ultimately play a role in CVD.</em></p> Malay Acharyya Tanushree Mondal Copyright (c) 2020 Malay Acharyya, Tanushree Mondal 2020-03-29 2020-03-29 6 1 GM14 GM18 Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The present study was attempted for multivariate analysis through principal component analysis for carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) as dependent variable compared to different independent variables used as parameters in diabetes and dyslipidaemia.</em> <em>Invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) should have to be used commonly to stabilize and treat critically ill patients in an ICU. Iatrogenic lung damages, including VAP, have been reported as some hazards of MV. These hazards are affected by the severity of illness, duration of MV, immunity and physiological reserve of the individual.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The biochemical and obese data of total 75 patients were taken from earlier study. The data of six biochemical markers of DM and dyslipidaemia along with one obese marker and CIMT were analysed. Data were analysed for Pearson’s-Spearman correlation coefficients matrix for the relationships between CIMT and parameters of DM as well as dyslipidaemia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce the variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated predictor variables. Individual PC scores were generated from their risk factors loadings for DM and dyslipidaemia separately.</em> <em>The duration of study was over a period of one year. This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine. The study was over a period of one year and it was separated into a 6 month for pre-implementation period throughout which standard care used for mechanically ventilated cases and a for the post-implementation period also 6 months included throughout which a VAP care bundle was effected.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong><em> In our study 323 &amp; 306 cases were required &gt;48 hrs during Pre-implementation period &amp; during Post-implementation period respectively. Different types of microorganism we isolated from all cases.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: It can be concluding that&nbsp;constant compliance with quality improvement practices would reduce the incidence of VAP shortly.</em></p> Pankaj Gandhi Bhagwan Ram Vishnoi Copyright (c) 2020 Pankaj Gandhi, Bhagwan Ram Vishnoi 2020-03-29 2020-03-29 6 1 GM19 GM21 A Prospective Study on Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>A patient with OCD may have an obsession or compulsion both. OCD is prevalent in general population at 2-3%. Some studies have found it to be 10%. OCD patients are generally affected by other mental disorders also.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 164 cases were included in this study. This study was conducted in Department of Psychiatry. The duration of study was over a period of one year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In conclusion, the present study revealed that 54 of the OCD patients have MS. Whereas in the prevalence of different component of metabolic syndrome, low HDL-C was the most frequent criterion met (73.5%), followed by increased WC (53.6%). High blood pressure, high FBS and hypertriglyceridemia were found in 45.1%, 21.9% and 19.5% of the sample, respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Mean score for measuring the severity of OCD found to be more in patients having MS in comparison to patients having no MS (p=0.001). This study found a prevalence of MS in accordance with other studies. </em></p> Rakesh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Rakesh Kumar Singh 2020-03-29 2020-03-29 6 1 PS1 PS3 Assessment on Anesthetic Requirement and Peri-operative Hemodynamic Stress Response after a Single Pre-operative Dose of Dexmedotomidine Versus Fentanyl: A Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Dexmedetomidine is an imidazole derivative and highly specific and selective </em><em>α</em><em>-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. The time of endotracheal intubation, extubation and laparoscopy are the most crucial times which may provoke and aggravate transient, but severe sympathetic responses such as tachycardia and hypertension.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 99 cases were included in this study. This study had two groups. In group 1 50 cases were included and in group 2 49 cases were included. This study was conducted in Department of Anesthesia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Total 99 numbers of cases were included in this study. Total cases were split in to two groups. Group 1 had 50 cases &amp; group 2 had 49 cases. Adverse effect found in this study that was bradycardia in 1 case of group 1.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that by providing smooth recovery without undue sedation with better analgesia Dexmedetomidine reduces the need of analgesics in comparison to Fentanyl.</em></p> Vinod Rathore Devendra Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Vinod Rathore, Devendra Singh 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 AN1 AN3 Use of Adenosine and Magnesium Sulphate Vs Bupivacaine in Upper Limb Surgeries and Post-Operative Analgesia: A Comparative Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The present study was conducted to</em><em> compare the additives adenosine and magnesium sulphate with bupivacaine in infraclavicular infusion for upper limb surgeries and postoperative analgesia</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This Prospective study was done at the Department of Anaesthesiology</em><em>. Around 26</em><em> patients scheduled for elective unilateral upper limb surgeries involving distal arm/ elbow/ forearm/hand divided into two groups A (n=13) and B (n=13) randomly. Group A - adenosine 6mgs with 28 ml 0.5% bupivacaine bolus followed by infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine 28ml with 6mgs of adenosine (2ml) at a rate of 5ml/hr. Group B - magnesium sulphate 75 mgs (in 2ml) with 28ml of 0.5% bupivacaine bolus followed by infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine 28ml with 75mgs of magnesium sulphate (in 2ml) at a rate of 5ml/hr in USG guided placement of infraclavicular catheter. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Result&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that&nbsp; Group&nbsp; A&nbsp; had a&nbsp; faster Onset time of sensory and motor block and faster recovery as compared to group B. Group A needed more rescue analgesia than group B.</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>The addition of magnesium sulphate as an additive to bupivacaine in brachial plexus block may be a better choice when prolonged postoperative analgesia is required.</em></p> Suraj Kumar Anurag Agarwal Shivani Rastogi P K Das Mamta Harjai Deepak Malviya Copyright (c) 2020 Suraj Kumar, Anurag Agarwal, Shivani Rastogi, P K Das, Mamta Harjai, Deepak Malviya 6 1 AN4 AN6 A Prospective Study on Relaparotomies Following Obstetric & Gynecological Surgeries: A Hospital Based Study <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The purpose of relaparotomy is to manage the previous surgery complications, maintain homeostasis, to clear intraabdominal infection and prevent sepsis. Relaparotomy is a difficult decision and it should be undertaken by an experienced surgical team.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study included 46 cases of relaparotomies. This study conducted in department of gynecology &amp; surgery and the subjects were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Total relaparotomies were 23. 83% were following caesarean section.17% were following Gynaecology related surgeries. Most common indication was hemoperitoneum. Coagulopathy was associated with 43% of cases. Average duration of time between primary surgery and reoperation was 18.5 hrs. Total deaths were 6(26%) and all were obstetric cases. The most common cause of death was coagulopathy with multi organ failure.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that, relaparotomies can be prevented by adopting simple but important techniques during the surgical procedure. Adequate replacement of blood and blood products can prevent dilutional coagulopathy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Tilak Raj Kakkar Anuradha Kakkar Copyright (c) 2020 Anuradha Kakkar, Tilak Raj Kakkar 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 OG1 OG3 An Analytical Study on PCOD with Reference to Clinical and Biochemical Parameters <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The association of PCOS to menstrual cycle abnormalities has been already established. Menstrual irregularities appear to precede the presence of PCOS. It is evident that there is a close relation between the degree of cycle irregularities and the grade of endocrine and metabolic disorders among the PCOS women.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>In this study 100 cases were included. This study was conducted in the Department of Gynecology. The duration of study was over a period of two year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Among 100 cases, 66 cases had menstrual irregularity, 22 cases had Hyperandrogenism &amp; infertility seen 12 cases.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that; menstrual irregularities are most presenting symptom in PCOS. TVS is the most the important diagnostic tool. Obesity and overweight is a most important modifiable risk factor which will prevent this disorder.</em></p> Divya Mittal Alka Agarwal Copyright (c) 2020 Divya Mittal, Alka Agarwal 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 OG4 OG6 A Prospective Study on Prevalence and Management of Jaundice during Antenatal Period in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>There are such a large number of components that are minded of during the antenatal period, Jaundice is one of them and significant one. Point of current examination was to know the etiological variables of jaundice among pregnant patients, result and their administration.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study done in the </em><em>Department of&nbsp;Obstetrics &amp; Gynaecology, </em><em>among pregnant patients with jaundice admitted in obstetric wards and labour room in 6 months duration</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Among total admissions, 33 patients presented with jaundice. Out of all admissions 10 were HBSAg, 4 HEV, 3 HCV, 2 of HBSAg and HEV co-infection, cholestasis with pregnancy 6 and 3 patients with pre-eclamptic liver disease with HELLP.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Jaundice in pregnancy may be deadly to mother and fetus. As the course of disease is also rapid and in short period it may affect the fetus in utero also, early detection and prompt management of these cases should be done.</em></p> Puja Raizaday Mamta Goyal Copyright (c) 2020 Puja Raizaday, Mamta Goyal 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 OG7 OG8 A Longitudinal Study on Visual Problems of Medical Students using Smart Phones in Haldia, India <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Blue light is essential for good health. Ocular complaints of users of electronic screens are collectively known as “Computer Vision Syndrome”. There are very few longitudinal studies about effect of HEV light on medical students in the Indian setting.<br>Methods: A longitudinal study with three visits at initial day, three and six months was designed to record the ocular health of medical students. IOP, TBUT and eye dryness were measured with standard tools. Mean differences in values at the end of three visits were calculated and analysed. Numbers having astigmatism were compared using Cochran’s Q test.</p> <p>Results: Number of students having astigmatism at the end of the study was statistically significant when compared to baseline. No significant change in cylindrical power. IOP, TBUT and Schirmer Test values all showed highly significant changes over three visits.<br>Conclusions: There was significant visual deterioration among the study population over the course of the study, which points to the urgency of adopting precautionary measures while using devices like smart phones, which emanate blue light.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Debabrata Datta Abhishek De Copyright (c) 2020 Debabrata Datta, Abhishek De 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 OP1 OP5 A Prospective Study on Incidence and Diagnosis of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Normal inward curvatures are observed in both cervical and lumbar regions of the vertebral column. Because of these lordotic curvatures they help in shock absorption and support the weight of the head. Spondylolisthesis happens when one vertebra slips forward over the vertebra underneath it. This condition for the most part creates in the lumbar area of the vertebral section. It is due to the lumbar spine being exposed to directional pressures while carrying and distributing most of the body weight during activity and at rest. Such a combination of weight bearing and multidirectional movement may cause forward slippage of any random lumbar vertebra over the vertebra beneath it. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This observational study was conducted on patients presented with low back pain and patients enrolled were clinically and radiologically investigated. Data regarding age, sex and occupation were recorded.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Out of 950 cases presented with Low Back Pain, only 45 cases was reported to have symptomatic spondylolisthesis. It was observed that majority of cases were seen in the age group of 35 to 55 years with higher preponderance among males. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Incidence of symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis was high. Sex ratio among presenting cases was observed to be higher in males. Cases were clinically examined and diagnosed radiologically. Most of the cases were managed conservatively. Imaging remains the only tool to facilitate neurosurgery related decision making.</em></p> Ram Krishna Jha Copyright (c) 2020 Ram Krishna Jha 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 RD1 RD3 A Retrospective Study on Evaluation of Bronchogenic Carcinoma by CT in a Tertiary Care Teaching Centre <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Bronchogenic carcinoma is most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world with incidence rising in developing countries. MDCT is the modality of choice for evaluating the lung carcinomas.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>In this study 53 total numbers of cases were involved. This study was conducted in department of Radiology.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This study revealed that 47.2% cases of adenocarcinoma, 32.1% cases squamous cell carcinoma,15.1% cases small cell carcinoma &amp; 5.6% cases large cell carcinoma.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that in diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma, CT is a highly sensitive and specific test. Multi Detector Computed Tomography has a high positive predictive value.</em></p> Dinesh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Dinesh Kumar Singh 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 RD4 RD6 Patient participation in diabetic care: Knowledge, practice, Implementation and attitude of diabetic patients at Civil Hospital Karachi <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the knowledge of diabetic care and its practice among diabetic individuals coming to Civil Hospital Karachi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Total 345 diabetic subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus from the ages of 30 years and above were included in this cross sectional study. Their demographic data, knowledge, attitude and practice was recorded about the different aspects of diabetes mellitus. Data was collected from type 2 diabetic subjects and analysis was done by using SPSS 16.0.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 345 diabetic subjects, educational status of the patients played the prime role in both knowledge and its implementation. The result focused around parameters such as awareness of glucose monitoring, awareness of being non-compliant to drugs, importance of weight loss, awareness of diabetic complications and importance of exercise, all above implying to awareness / knowledge of the patient regarding their disease. We also assessed their care about their disease by the following parameters which included regular sugar checkups, regular exercise, ophthalmologist visit and implementation of the knowledge in their daily life.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The frequency of knowledge, attitude and practice about the diabetes was low in most areas of diabetic knowledge and care emphasizing the need for more educational efforts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahsan Muhammad Sadia Afzal Aisha Abdul Haq Asim Abid Minhas Copyright (c) 2020 Ahsan Muhammad, Sadia Afzal, Aisha Abdul Haq , Asim Abid Minhas 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 BC1 BC4 Knowledge, Perception and Beliefs Regarding Androgenic alopecia among Young Adults in Karachi, Pakistan <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Our study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding Male Pattern Baldness among young adults in Karachi, Pakistan. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A cross sectional study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire, finalized after a pilot study and after reviewing several articles on the topic. A random population of 673 young adult men, more than our target of 664, calculated through with 99% confidence, from Karachi were involved. Convenient sampling technique was used. The participants were enquired regarding their general knowledge regarding MPB, the impact of male pattern baldness on psychosocial health and self-esteem of an individual, and their practices. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Out of the 673 participants, there were 299 (44.45%) participants between the ages of 17-21 and 374 (55.5%) between the ages of 22-26. There was a slight gap of knowledge between the age groups. A majority of individuals [545 (80.9%)] from our study had heard of male pattern baldness before. More than half of the participants thought that people with MPB are considered unattractive [346 (51.4%)] and majority, 482 (71.6%) people thought that MPB causes depression and anxiety. A larger portion of the people that took part (71.9%) reported that they suffer from hair-fall problems. A majority of people [575 (85.4%)] felt that there is need for more awareness programs in Pakistan.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Majority of the partakers generally had poor knowledge regarding causes of MPB, affected age groups and the role of genetics. However, they recognized its negative impact on social, emotional and psychological health. More researches are needed to be conducted in Karachi on MPB.</em></p> Naseem Ahmed Bilal Ahmed Khan Syed Wasif Bukhari Khawaja Uzair Wasif Kiran Shafiq Khan Osama Shabbir Maaz Bin Nazir Ashar Shahid Copyright (c) 2020 Naseem Ahmed, Bilal Ahmed Khan, Syed Wasif Bukhari, Khawaja Uzair Wasif, Kiran Shafiq Khan, Osama Shabbir, Maaz Bin Nazir, Ashar Shahid 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 PA1 PA6 Analysis of Blood Donor Deferral Pattern in a New Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi Region <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>A&nbsp; screening&nbsp; procedure&nbsp; is&nbsp; mandatory&nbsp; before&nbsp; blood&nbsp; donation&nbsp; to&nbsp; ensure safety&nbsp; of&nbsp; blood&nbsp; donors&nbsp; and&nbsp; recipients. This&nbsp; process&nbsp; can&nbsp; lead&nbsp; to&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; of&nbsp; blood&nbsp; donors due&nbsp; to&nbsp; temporary&nbsp; or&nbsp; permanent&nbsp; reasons&nbsp; and&nbsp; eventually&nbsp; shortage&nbsp; of&nbsp; blood&nbsp; unit&nbsp; or&nbsp; donor pool. By&nbsp; analysing&nbsp; the&nbsp; donor&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; pattern&nbsp; and&nbsp; motivating&nbsp; them, donor&nbsp; pool&nbsp; may&nbsp; be recruited&nbsp; in&nbsp; future&nbsp; for&nbsp; further&nbsp; blood&nbsp; donation.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective :</em></strong><em> To&nbsp; study&nbsp; the&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; rate&nbsp; and&nbsp; different&nbsp; causes&nbsp; of&nbsp; donor&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; in&nbsp; a&nbsp; newly established&nbsp; blood&nbsp; bank&nbsp; of&nbsp; a&nbsp; tertiary&nbsp; set&nbsp; up&nbsp; in&nbsp; South&nbsp; Delhi. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>It&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; retrospective&nbsp; study&nbsp; conducted&nbsp; at&nbsp; Hamdard&nbsp; Institute&nbsp; of Medical&nbsp; Sciences&nbsp; and&nbsp; Research (HIMSR)&nbsp; over&nbsp; a&nbsp; period&nbsp; of&nbsp; 7 years (2012-2018)&nbsp; since&nbsp; the inception&nbsp; of&nbsp; its&nbsp; new&nbsp; blood&nbsp; bank&nbsp; in&nbsp; 2012. All&nbsp; the&nbsp; donors&nbsp; were&nbsp; screened&nbsp; in&nbsp; accordance with&nbsp; the&nbsp; National&nbsp; guidelines. Data&nbsp; was&nbsp; analysed&nbsp; with&nbsp; respect&nbsp; to&nbsp; their&nbsp; age,&nbsp; sex,&nbsp; type&nbsp; of donors, type&nbsp; of&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; and&nbsp; reasons&nbsp; for&nbsp; deferral. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>A&nbsp; total&nbsp; of&nbsp; 7806&nbsp; donors&nbsp; were&nbsp; registered (7503 Males, 303 Females)&nbsp; during&nbsp; the study&nbsp; period, out&nbsp; of&nbsp; which&nbsp; 988 (12.6%) donors&nbsp; were&nbsp; deferred. Amongst&nbsp; deferred&nbsp; donors, males (81.6%)&nbsp; outnumbered&nbsp; the&nbsp; females (18.31%). Overall&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; percentage&nbsp; was&nbsp; 12.6% which&nbsp; was&nbsp; more&nbsp; common&nbsp; in&nbsp; females (59.7%)&nbsp; as&nbsp; compared&nbsp; to&nbsp; males (10.7%). Most&nbsp; common cause&nbsp; of&nbsp; deferral&nbsp; in&nbsp; our&nbsp; study&nbsp; was&nbsp; Anaemia (43.2%)&nbsp; followed&nbsp; by&nbsp; Alcoholism (13%)&nbsp; and Hypertension (10%). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Studying the pattern of blood donor deferrals and its causes will help in identifying the donor population which could be targeted to increase the donor pool by participation in voluntary blood donations.</em></p> Nehal Ahmad Sabina Khan Mohd. Jaseem Hassan Sujata Jetley Copyright (c) 2020 Nehal Ahmad, Sabina Khan, Mohd. Jaseem Hassan, Sujata Jetley 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 PA7 PA11 Smartphones and Medical related Applications use among students in Dow Medical College <p><strong><u>ABSTRACT</u>:</strong></p> <p>Background: To find common medical-related applications and their specific purposes and to determine the prevalence and usage frequency of these smartphone applications among medical students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and usage frequency of smartphone applications among students of a medical university in Karachi within a period of 6 months from January 2019 to June 2019; currently enrolled in MBBS program from first to final year. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were distributed and filled after obtaining informed consent. The sample size consisting of a total of 278 students was calculated on a convenience sampling technique with an absolute precision of 0.1% and 95% confidence interval. Data were analyzed using SPSS version v 20.0- and Descriptive analysis for categorical data was done using frequencies and proportions. Bivariate analysis was done using the chi-square test. P-value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We had 278 respondents with male to female ratio of 1:2 out of which 98.9% owned a smartphone. Most were android users (52.9%). 62.2% owned medical-related apps while 37.8% didn’t use any. By using Chi sq. test there was a significant difference seen between both genders as females were using more smartphones with medical apps (p=0.015). Wikimed was found to be famous among all the students and 1st years were consistently using all apps except Pharmapedia; probably because pharmacology is not a major subject for them. The 1st years preferably used anatomy and medical dictionaries and the 3rd years leaned towards apps that were more clinical helping in diagnosing diseases (16)(17). Students were asked about their opinion on the need for any application specific to their medical school’s curriculum. Majority respondents voted in favor at 56.5% (n=157 / 278) while 29.5% (n=82/278) were indecisive and 14%(n=39) voted against such an application.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Even though we saw an increasing trend in the usage of medical apps as learning aids in younger students and specificity of famous apps, the amount used was still surprisingly less considering the time millennials spend on their mobile phones. This is why we asked the students their opinions on the possibility of an app designed for their medical school, specifically students making more than half of participants were in favor of this. Smartphones application role in Medicine appears promising and it’s obvious that students do want to have applications that can ensure them solid learning platforms in the future.</p> Naseem Ahmed Raveeha Ejaz Ayesha Channa Shiza Rehman Yusra Abrar Hareem Ansari Copyright (c) 2020 Naseem Ahmed, Raveeha Ejaz, Ayesha Channa, Shiza Rehman; Yusra Abrar; Hareem Ansari 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 PA12 PA16 Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI) in relation to the Age, Gender and Educational Level of the Patient <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The term [Nosocomial or Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI)] refers to infections acquired by the patient during his or her stay in the hospital, in which s/he was not infected before entering the hospital, and whose symptoms appear only 72 hours or more after entering the hospital. Hospital acquired infections has been a major concern in recent years due to its rapid spread in hospitals and the difficulty of controlling it. They are widespread because hospitals are depositories contain many microorganisms such as microbes, some of which may be pathogenic and others opportunistic. The hospital environment as well as patient’s age, gender and the educational level plays an important role in hospital acquired infections.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A total of 140 samples were collected over a period of one year from patients admitted in the hospital for three days or more in order to identify the most common bacterial isolates within the infections acquired from hospital and its relation to the age, gender and educational level of the patient. The samples included 75 urine samples, 28 stool samples, 28 wound swabs, and 9 sputum samples. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The percentage of HAI was (45.7%), where the highest percentage were among UTIs (50.7%) from the total of 75 samples, followed by wound infections (42.9%) from the total of 28 samples, gastrointestinal infections (39.3%) from the total of 28 samples, and pneumonic infections (33.3%) from the total of 9 samples. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that patient’s age, gender and educational level plays an important role in hospital acquired infection. </em></p> Rohini Milind Suryawanshi Snehal Shankerbhai Patel Rhema Milind Suryawanshi Copyright (c) 2020 Rohini Milind Suryawanshi, Snehal Shankerbhai Patel , Rhema Milind Suryawanshi 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 MI1 MI5 Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis among Population of Nawalparasi District of Nepal <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among population of Nawalparasai district of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 300 of population were examined for dental fluorosis through a random sampling technique from two villages of nawalparsai district. Dean’s Fluorosis Index was used to record dental fluorosis and information regarding the source of water till the age of 8 years.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall prevalence of fluorosis is 18.6%. Maximum 31(26.05%) study sample below 20 years age with fluorosis. Also, shows maximum fluorosis study sample source of drinking water is hand pump and according to Dean’s fluorosis index 16(28.5%) sample from very mild category. The result shows statistically significant result (p=0.001)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental fluorosis seemed to be a problem of medium public health significance. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water.</p> Vanita Gautam Ashwini Dayma Hemant Kumar Halwai Venkat Raman Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Vanita Gautam, Ashwini Dayma, Hemant Kumar Halwai, Venkat Raman Singh 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 6 1 D1 D3