International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan en-US International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2454-9886 Sacubitril/Valsartan: A Game Changer in the Treatment for Heart Failure http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/525 <p><em>With an estimated prevalence of 5.8 million in the United States and over 23 million people globally, heart failure (HF) is gradually becoming an epidemic. Despite the use of conventional medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for management of heart failure patients for almost two decades, HF remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. The Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial provided compelling evidence for the cardiovascular and mortality benefit of sacubitril/valsartan when compared to enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Following the trial, the US Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) approved this drug for the treatment of HF. There have been several other trials proving other important benefits of sacubitril/valsartan along with other ongoing trials. In this review, we will discuss about the characteristics of sacubitril/valsartan, its role in the management of heart failure, the various ongoing and already performed trials and their results to understand the current role and future uses of this combination drug. A systematic literature search was conducted using key words from relevant articles, and MeSh terms on google scholar and PubMed. Data were abstracted according to their relevance to subheadings of the review and synthesis of concepts done through multiple reviews by at least two reviewers for any subsection.</em></p> Avik Ray Ahmad Najmi Gaurav Khandelwal Ratinder Jhaj Sadasivam Balakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 Avik Ray, Ahmad Najmi, Gaurav Khandelwal, Ratinder Jhaj, Sadasivam Balakrishnan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PH1 PH8 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.01 Association Between Carotid Intima Medial Thickness and Dyslipidemia http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/534 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong><em>&nbsp; The objective was to know the association between carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) and dyslipidemia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. Total 100 patients were selected randomly who met the inclusion criteria. Among total patients, 48 were males and 52 were females. CIMT was measured by carotid artery ultrasonography using an echo tomography system having midfrequency of 7.5MhZ and detection limit of 0.1mm. The blood parameters such as LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL were estimated by using laboratory technique. Data was collected using a predetermined proforma and statistical analyses were done.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Both common carotid artery IMT and internal carotid artery IMT was increased in a step wise fashion with raising tertiles of LDL (P&lt;0.01) and total cholesterol (P&lt;0.01). There was decreasing trend in both CCA-IMT and ICA IMT with increasing tertiles of HDL (P&lt;0.01). No direct correlation was found between CCA-IMT and ICA-IMT with either VLDL or TG. The mean CIMT was significantly higher in hypertensive subjects than in non-hypertensive subjects. (P&lt;0.004). Mean CIMT was significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (P&lt;0.001).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: CIMT is an objective measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, which is a non- invasive, less expensive and time taking and easy reproducible way of demonstrating subclinical atherosclerosis. Thus, it can serve as a window for atherosclerosis status in other major arteries like coronary artery and cerebral arteries. The CIMT is closely associated with dyslipidemia, which can only be identified through specific blood parameters. </em></p> Malay Acharyya Copyright (c) 2019 Malay Acharyya http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GM1 GM5 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.10 A Prospective Study on Antihypertensives Utilization in Type 2 Diabetic patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/535 <p><strong><em>Background: H</em></strong><em>ypertension is more prevalent in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Hypertension is risk factor not only for development of diabetes but also for complications like nephropathy, CAD and neuropathy etc. Hypertension control is vital to prevent and retard progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate treatment patterns in diabetic patients with hypertension, those are being followed at our institute.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was conducted on diabetic patients, who are also suffering from Hypertension. Prescribing Pattern of Antihypertensive drugs was analysed on all diabetic patients reporting to medicine OPD at Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Udaipur &nbsp;&nbsp;and were screened.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Out of n=110 patients, 62 were males and 48 were females. Mean age of group was 47.65 years. 46.18% patients were on monotherapy and remaining patients were on combination antihypertensive drugs. There were total 260 antihypertensive drug exposures. Angiotensin receptor blockers were the most commonly prescribed drugs (n=48). Angiotensin inhibitors (angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors) were utilized in majority of the patients. Hypertension control was achieved in 42.36% patients. About 78.58% were aware about the disease.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Our study revealed that majority of diabetic hypertensive patients were administered multiple drug therapy in order to control hypertension. Majority of the patients were on ARBs/ACE inhibitors. This was according to recommendation by ADA or JNC8.</em></p> Tushar Vasudev Vyas Copyright (c) 2019 Tushar Vasudev Vyas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GM6 GM8 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.11 Screening of Thyroid Dysfunction and Dyslipidaemia in Patients of Diabetic Nephropathy in a Tertiary Care Centre in Western U.P http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/536 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Diabetes mellitus is often associated with multiple organ co-morbidities, including thyroid dysfunction. This has been associated with poorer prognosis, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. Hypothyroidism enhances the progression of atherogenesis. CRF is a serious health problem in worldwide. In developing nation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CRF) patients. Therefore, early determination and management of the risk factors for CVD in D.M patients play an important role to develop more effective screening and treatment strategies </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>.M, Thyroid status, Lipid profile, serum Urea, serum Creatinine, serum Uric acid, serum electrolyte,&nbsp; Catalase, and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in 160 subjects in which 80 patients of D.M were having hypertension and 80 healthy controls. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>There was found significantly increased level (p&lt;0.001) of TSH in D.M associated with hypertension patients. We also found deranged lipid profile and renal functions in D.M patients associated with hypertension as compared to controls. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>In our present study, we arrived at conclusion that dyslipidemia and thyroid dysfunction is very common in D.M patients. Our study revealed that there was significant association between thyroid dysfunction, D.M and dyslipidemia. </em></p> Mohit Gupta Prabhat Chaudhary Ujjwal Kumar Anil Kumar Ken Vivek Sinha Copyright (c) 2019 Mohit Gupta, Prabhat Chaudhary, Ujjwal Kumar, Anil Kumar Ken, Vivek Sinha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GM9 GM13 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.12 A Prospective Study on Serum Uric Acid Level in Predicting Outcome in Acute Myocardial Infarction http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/537 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Higher levels of SUA are also associated with hypertension and renal disease. It is observed in &gt;75% of patients with malignant hypertension. This elevation has been reported as a result of decreased renal blood flow and resultant increased urate reabsorption. It has been further reported that a 1 mg/dL increase in SUA levels was associated with a 26% increase in mortality.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>.</em> <em>The duration of study was over a period of two year. Total 204 cases were included with acute myocardial infraction. This study was conducted in the Department of Medicine.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study 204 cases of acute myocardial infraction were included. Among all cases 132 were male &amp; 72 were female. Prevalence of uric acid level in acute MI cases were 4.1-5.5 mg/dl seen in 28.4% followed by &gt;7.0 mg/dl in 27.4%, &lt;4 mg/dl in 22.5% &amp; 5.6-7.0 mg/dl in 21.5%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that serum uric acid is a cheap and effective prognostic indicator of AMI.</em></p> Bhagwan Ram Vishnoi Pankaj Gandhi Copyright (c) 2019 Bhagwan Ram Vishnoi, Pankaj Gandhi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GM14 GM16 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.13 Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Old Patients Visiting OPD of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/548 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Vitamin D Deficiency is very much prevalent in India which is unexpected in a tropical country with abundant sunshine (8). India is located between 8.4°N and 37.6°N latitude. Most of its population living in regions experiencing optimum sunlight throughout the year. Despite its sunny environment, hypovitaminosis D is common in India.</p> <p>Methods: 320 geriatric patients were included of both sexes. This study was conducted in Department of Medicine at Rohilkhand Medical College, Bareilly<br>Results: We found that in this study, 66.8% cases suffered from deficiency, 28.2% insufficiency. Only 5% cases were normal.</p> <p>Conclusions: This study concludes that Vitamin D deficiency is a key public health problem among geriatric age group.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Anupam Seth Bharat Kumar Kalra Copyright (c) 2019 Anupam Seth, Bharat Kumar Kalra http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GM17 GM19 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.19 A Prospective Study on Effectiveness of Non- invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/538 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. The chronic and progressive course of COPD is often punctuate by “exacerbations”, defined clinically as episodes of increasing respiratory symptoms, particularly dyspnoea, cough and sputum production, and increased sputum purulence.</em> <strong><em>AIM: </em></strong><em>To study the effectiveness of non- invasive positive pressure ventilation in the management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Our study included 63 patients of acute exacerbation of COPD admitted in the intensive care unit of Shri Aurobindo Medical College and Post Graduate Institute, Indore, India.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The maximum numbers of patients (46.03%) were in the age group between 61 to 70 years. In our study, the overall success rate in patients given noninvasive ventilation along with standard therapy was higher (95.2%) compared to patients given standard therapy alone (60.3%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This proves that non</em><em>-</em><em>invasive ventilatory support is an effective tool in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD.</em></p> Roonak Jain Deepak Nagar Copyright (c) 2019 Roonak Jain, Deepak Nagar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PM1 PM3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.14 A Study to Find out Incidence, Etiology, Diagnosis and Outcome of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/539 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48-72 hours or thereafter following endotracheal intubation. VAP contributes to approximately half of all cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia . VAP is estimated to occur in 9-27 % of all mechanically ventilated patients. Hence the present study was undertaken to study incidence, etiology, diagnosis and outcome VAP. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A total of 100 patients who will be kept on mechanical ventilator will be selected in an intensive care unit (ICU). Cases included will be patients of both sexes who were kept on mechanical ventilator for more than 48 h, having the age of &gt;14 years. Informed Written consent will be obtained from all the study subjects. A detailed clinical evaluation including thorough history, physical and general examination will be done on each subject. </em><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong><em>Growth &gt;105 CFU/ml was taken as the cut-off threshold for ETAs while growth &gt;104 CFU/ml was taken as the cut-off for BAL. All patients who will be included in the study will be monitored at frequent intervals (every three days) for the development of VAP using clinical and microbiological criteria until either discharge or death. The clinical parameters will be recorded from their medical records and bedside charts. Details of antibiotic therapy, surgery, use of steroids, duration of hospitalization, presence of neurological disorders, and impairment of consciousness will also be noted.</em><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Out of 100 patients VAP was found to be in 43 patients . in early onset VAP pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobactor baumanii are the chief causative organisms (36% each) .in late onset VAP pseudomonas, klebsiella were most common causative organisms(52% each) followed by acinetobactor baumanii.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This proves that non</em><em>-</em><em>invasive ventilatory support is an effective tool in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD.</em></p> Pawan Kumar Shukla Santosh K Jha Copyright (c) 2019 Pawan Kumar Shukla, Santosh K Jha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PM4 PM6 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.15 A Comparative Analysis on Regional Verses Local Anaesthesia in Hemorrhoidectomy Cases http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/550 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Haemorrhoidal disease is a common anorectal condition. It is classified as external or internal. It also depends on their origin, i.e. below or above the dentate line and both of which can coexist. Its etiology includes low residue diet, straining at defecation, constricting cancer, portal hypertension, aging and weakness of muscle supporting veins, constipation, prostatism, sitting or standing for long periods of time, obesity, the lifting of heavy weights over a long period, repeated diarrhea and dysentery and the tendency to suppress the urge to defaecate or flatulate</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>In this comparative study we were included 60 cases, which were split in local anesthesia group &amp; spinal anesthesia group. This study was conducted in Department of Anesthesia.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study 60 total numbers of cases were included. We observed Median pain score in this study that was in 0 cases at 30 min, in 3 cases at 2 hours,3 cases at 4 hours, in 2 cases at 8 hours &amp; in 0 cases at 12 hours in both groups.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that Hemorrhoidectomy can be done in local anesthesia with perianal block. Though, this method of anesthesia is associated with lower postoperative complication. Post-operative pain is similar to spinal anesthesia.</em></p> Devendra Singh Vinod Rathore Copyright (c) 2019 Devendra Singh, Vinod Rathore http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 AN1 AN3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.21 Assessment of Incidence of Appendicitis Among Known Population: A Hospital Based Prospective Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/528 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Appendicitis is the commonly observed acute abdominal state and the most common reason for surgeries of abdomen. There has been a drastic reduction in morbidity and mortality related with appendicitis in 20<sup>th</sup> century because of better obtainability of healthcare amenities. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the incidence of appendicitis amongst known population. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This hospital based prospective study was performed in Department of Surgery, R.B.M. Hospital, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Detailed history of all the subjects were obtained and complete blood analysis of all the subjects were performed. Radiological diagnosis was taken for final confirmation of appendicitis by abdominal ultrasound. All the data was tabulated and analysed by SPSS software. Percentage of the data was calculated.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study a total 2600 subjects were examined out of which 200 subjects had appendicitis. The incidence being 7.6%. There were 130 males and 70 females. The mean age group of females 33.18+/-9.38 years and mean age of males was 42.17+/-3.14 years. There were 53% cases of pyrexia. 42% subjects showed rebound tenderness. There were 17% cases of guarding. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Acute appendicitis is a usually occurring clinical condition that needs immediate management. The incidence of appendicitis in our study was 7.6%. </em></p> Anil Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Anil Gupta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GS1 GS3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.04 Penile Fracture: Presentation, Diagnosis and the Treatment http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/529 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Penile fractures typically occur when the engorged penile corpora are forced to buckle and literally “pop” under the pressure of a blunt sexual trauma, due to slippage of the penis out of the vagina during intercourse and the treatment is often delayed due to embarrassment felt by the patient. The condition is one of the uncommon emergencies but fully diagnosed through history and clinical examination alone. Patients typically describe that a “plop” sound was followed by immediate de-tumescence, severe pain, and swelling, called as “egg-plant” deformity, as a result of the injury. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The diagnosis of penile fracture describes the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of an erect penis. Although a majority of cases can be diagnosed from the history and physical examination alone, radiographic studies, including retrograde urethrography and corporal cavernosography can aid in the diagnosis of this unusual cases.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The patient reports to the surgical emergency within 24 to 48 hours of injury and can be handled successfully with minimum complications. The immediate surgical exploration with evacuation of the hematoma and repair of tunica albuginea defect is the ideal and most efficacious treatment of such a condition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Postoperatively, the patient may have penile bending/torsion and erectile dysfunction, but this is often self-limiting.</em></p> Fayaz Ahmad Najar Raja Nadeem Peer Hilal Ahmad Makhdoomi Syed Shakeeb Copyright (c) 2019 Fayaz Ahmad Najar, Raja Nadeem, Peer Hilal Ahmad Makhdoomi, Syed Shakeeb http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 GS4 GS6 Assessment of Menstrual Disorders Among Girls Visited in Hospital: A Prospective Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/533 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Adolescence is a transitional stage characterized by rapid physical, mental and sexual changes, hormonal changes. Menstrual cycle is an important indicator of women's reproductive health. As girls attain puberty at this age, they have various problems associated with menstruation. The present prospective study was conducted to assess menstrual disorders among girls visited in hospital.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics &amp; Gynecology, Government Medical College, Barmer, Rajasthan, India over the period of 1 year. The sample size was 390 adolescent girls. The complete menstrual history was taken. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In the present study maximum number of adolescent girls of age group of 10-13 years (68.20%). Maximum number of girls had menstruation for 3-7 days (48.46%). Dysmenorrhea was the most common disorder among adolescent girls.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Our study concluded that menstrual disorders were present in most of the adolescent girls. Dysmenorrhea was the most common disorder among adolescent girls.</em></p> Kheta Ram Soni Sudesh Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Kheta Ram Soni, Sudesh Agarwal http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 OG1 OG2 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.09 The Prospective Study on Post-Operative Wound Infections in Orthopedics IPD of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/542 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The rate of postoperative wound infection varies from one to nine per cent, depending on the surgical procedure. Each postoperative wound infection increases the length of stay in hospital, the cost of the procedure and is associated with significant morbidity.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This prospective study was conducted in the IPD of Orthopaedics. The population of study was 200 cases. The duration of study was over a period of two year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Predominant organism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which were 57.1% from post-operative infected wound followed by 14.2% Klebsiella pneumonia, 10.7% Proteus &amp; Staphylococcus aureus &amp; 8% Escherichia coli.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: The present study concludes that culture &amp; sensitivity may help in treatment &amp; cure of infection.</em></p> Pookhraj Choudhary Copyright (c) 2019 Pookhraj Choudhary http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 OT1 OT3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.18 Study on Micro-Organisms Isolated from Ear Swab: A Hospital Based Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/530 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Bacteria are the commonest cause of sinusitis<strong>.</strong> Though, the route of infection is varied but the main target is the eustachian tube which leads to the nasopharynx. Due to this, the infection may arise from the nose, throat such as tonsillitis or the outer ear.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>400 total numbers of cases were included in this study. Out of 230 samples were identified as positive. This study was conducted in the department of ENT in </em><em>Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Hapur. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study, 400 total numbers of cases were included of ear swab. Out of which 57.5% cases were positive for ear swab &amp; rest were negative. In the 230 sample 39.2% gram positive &amp; 60.8 negative were isolated.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Most common prevalent bacteria isolated from chronic discharging ears were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.</em></p> Abhijeet Kumar Sinha Copyright (c) 2019 Abhijeet Kumar Sinha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 OL1 OL3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.06 Use of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Intramuscular Cysticercosis - A Hospital Based Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/547 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background: Cysticercosis is one of the basic ailment found in creating nations. Right now, extraneural tissues are normally included synchronously or metachronously with the cerebrum. Disconnected invasion of delicate tissue and muscle without neural association is more typical than recently suspected. High resolution ultrasonography has evolved now as an investigation of choice with proven sonological patterns of soft tissue cysticercosis which can entirely negate the need for invasive interventions.</p> <p>Methods: Prospective evaluation of total 12 cases of extraneural cysticercosis was carried out in the department of Radio diagnosis.. HRUSG analysis of 12 cases was done to evaluate and classify the various classic sonomorphological features of isolated cysticercosis involving soft tissue and muscles. FNAC was done only in 5 cases.</p> <p>Results: Around 8 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 8 cases, 3 were male and 5 were female patients. Three individuals were vegetarian and five were non vegetarian. Mean age was 35 years. All cases were diagnosed on HRUSG. Intramuscular lesion was identified in 6 cases and 2 cases had subcutaneous involvement with anterior abdominal wall in muscular plane as the commonest site in three patients. FNAC was done in 3 cases confirming the cysticercosis and was treated surgically.</p> <p>Conclusions: With the appearance of high-goals ultrasonography and expanded clinical familiarity with the secluded delicate tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis particularly in endemic zone, a progressively moderate non-obtrusive methodology can be applied both in finding and treatment of these detached instances of cysticercosis.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Ram Krishna Jha Copyright (c) 2019 Ram Krishna Jha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 RD1 RD3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.20 An Analytic Study on Patterns of Neonatal Brain Injury by USG in Perinatal Asphyxia Cases http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/553 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Perinatal asphyxia is a common neonatal problem.&nbsp; Perinatal asphyxia might result in adverse effects on all major body systems. Infant with perinatal asphyxia renal, neurologic, cardiac and lung dysfunction occurs in 50%, 28%, 25% and 23% cases respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 100 number of cases which&nbsp; were asphyxiated babies showing clinical features of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy were included in this study. This study was conducted in Department of Radiology.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study we were included 100 total numbers of cases. Among all Pre term birth cases were 32% &amp; 68% cases of term birth. We observed that 30% were isolated from intracranial haemorrhage,16% were cerebral oedema,6% dilation of ventricles,7% had other abnormalities &amp; 41% cases were normal.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concludes that in neonates USG may be supplemented with MRI and functional imaging of the brain for better analysis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Dinesh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Dinesh Kumar Singh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 RD4 RD6 Evaluation of Knowledge in Clinical Applications of Anatomy at the end of First Year M.B.B.S - A Questionnaire Based Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/540 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Anatomy has several sub-divisions. Each and every sub-division takes us to a road of knowledge as to how the cell has given rise to such an enthralling human life. It is important to have an integrated curriculum so as to end the monotony of the basic sciences by creating an enthusiastic approach by correlating the topics dealt in anatomy with clinical practice. In this study, our vision is to evaluate as medical teachers be it in basic sciences or as clinicians that whatever we are trying to impart to our students is it imbibed in their minds on their way to be a Indian medical graduate to assess knowledge the first year M.B,B.S students have attained at the end of their first year tenure. Objective: 1.Assess whether student is able to correlate anatomy when they enter the clinical postings. 2.Assess the role of integration in the medical education</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, A.C.S Medical College and Hospital, Chennai with academic inputs from the department of General Surgery, Pacific medical college and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan. A set of 15 questions were prepared to test the familiarity of students with the use of medical terminologies, surface landmarks of the vessels, bones as well as placement of the viscera by the end of I M.B,B.S. 133 students appeared for the test. <strong>Results: </strong>A grading system was devised where a score equal to or above 50% was considered as an average and a good score. It was found that 52.6% of the students had a poor knowledge with regards to the subject of medicine. With regard to questions related to surgery, 91% of the students’ performance was below average. 75% of the students showed up poor performance as a whole. &nbsp;</em><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>The study conducted revealed the importance of integration between the anatomy and clinical subjects but also unveiled the importance of an early clinical exposure . To conclude, the study was conducted to evaluate and evolve better teaching learning methods in anatomy so that it helps the student further in their clinical skills.</em></p> Vishwas Johri Aprajita Raizada Ramnath Takiar Copyright (c) 2019 Vishwas Johri, Aprajita Raizada, Ramnath Takiar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 HA1 HA3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.16 Effect of Gender on Reactivity to Cold Stress in Young Medical Students http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/541 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Previous studies have found contradictory results in reactivity pattern in males and females to cold pressor test . It is important to understand these differences and its subsequent relevance in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and coronary artery disease.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Aim: </em></strong><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on reactivity to cold pressor test in young healthy medical students.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>94 young medical students in the age group of 17 to 27 years were subjected to cold pressor test and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure recorded before and after the test. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The mean systolic rise of blood pressure was found to be 13.63 ± 9.71mm Hg in females as compared to 12.31 ± 5.79 mm Hg in males. The mean diastolic rise in blood pressure was 9.71 ± 4.58 mm Hg in females as compared to 8.84 ± 4.14 mm Hg in males. The difference of mean for both mean systolic and diastolic rise of blood pressure in male and female subjects was not found to be statistically significant (p value = &gt;0.1). The percentage of female hyper-reactors (36%) was found to be more than male hyper-reactors (31%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: No statically significant difference was found in the reactivity to cold pressor test between males and females. The percentage of female hyper-reactors was more probably due to lower threshold to cold induced pain.</em></p> Ritu Bajpai Chanda Rajak Copyright (c) 2019 Ritu Bajpai, Chanda Rajak http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 HP1 HP2 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.17 Vitamin Rich Indian Fruit: Juglans Regia: Effect on Lipid Profile http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/526 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Hyperlipidemia is one of the important risk factor to develop coronary artery disease (CAD) leading to main cause of morbidity and mortality due to heart attack and cardiac arrhythmias. Decreased level of plasma HDL-cholesterol independently can cause CAD. Recent research studies have proved that walnuts can increase plasma HDL-cholesterol if taken in specific amount per day regularly.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Place and duration of study:</em></strong><em> Research study was conducted at Lahore General Hospital, Lahore from January 2014 to April 2014.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Their baseline values of HDL-cholesterol were measured at day-0 and day-60, by separating other lipoprotein fractions using chemical precipitation with Mg<sup>2+</sup>, then coupling the products of a cholesterol oxidase reaction. </em><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In twenty hyperlipidaemic patients, two months of therapy with 30 grams of walnuts per day increase in HDL-cholesterol was 6.3 mg/dl which was a significant change when analyzed biostatistically, showing p-value &lt;0.01. </em><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>It was concluded from the study, that regular intake of specific amount of walnuts without shell can increase good cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) in male and female patients of age range from 18 to 65 years. </em></p> Shah Murad Seema Saif Dur Muhammad Shaikh Jamil Shah Murad Abdul Qudoos Arain Abdul Ghaffar Sana Tufail Copyright (c) 2019 Shah Murad, Seema Saif, Dur Muhammad Shaikh, Jamil Shah Murad, Abdul Qudoos Arain, Abdul Ghaffar, Sana Tufail http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PH9 PH11 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.02 A Drug Utilization Study in Post-operative Patients of IPD Obstetrics and Gynaecology http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/527 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>During delivery and postpartum period, antibacterial drugs play a very crucial role. The availability of these drugs can reduce maternal mortality. It is estimated that 350 000 maternal deaths happen worldwide. Infections are the major causes of maternal mortality. WHO reported that infections are responsible for 15% of the worldwide maternal mortality.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>148 total number of cases were included in this study. Patients aged more than 18 years. Post-operative patients till discharged, in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department were included in this study. This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Gynaecology. </em><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study 148 total numbers of cases were included. Out of total cases 67.5% were belonged to 21-30 age group followed by 22.3% (31-40),5.4% (&gt;40),4.7% (&lt;20). In our study, we were seen 48.6% cases having LCSC surgery while 17.5% hysterectomy followed by 10.8% dilation &amp; curettage, 10.1% TAH, 9.4% emergency laparotomy, 4.7% TAH with bilateral salpingo-oophorecomy, 4.0% cystectomy, 2.7% wound gap repair &amp; total vaginal hysterectomy &amp; 1.3% cervical biopsy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: These studies conclude that broader evaluation of safety and efficacy of drug prescription in surgical wards of a teaching hospital. Cost effective treatment is required to avoid polypharmacy. </em></p> Mohd. Sajid Khan Copyright (c) 2019 Mohd. Sajid Khan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PH12 PH14 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.03 A Prospective Study on Cytological Analysis of Pleural, Ascitic & Pericardial Effusions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/531 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>In the diagnosis of various lesions, cytological analyses of effusions play an important role. It contributes in cancer research and staging of various tumors.1 Pleural, ascitic, pericardial and synovial are some of the most commonly analyzed fluids. In the analysis of effusions, the differentiation of transudates and exudates is the first step as it often provides an indication of the underlying pathophysiological process, the differential diagnosis and the need for further investigation. The major purpose of body fluid cytology is the detection of malignant cells.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present study was conducted in the dept. of Pathology, Krishna Mohan Medical College &amp; Hospital, Mathura, U.P, India. 284 total numbers of cases were included in this study. The duration of study was over a period of one year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study, 284 cases were included in this study. Among all 168 cases were male rest were female. In our study, most of the people were belongs to 41-50 (64%) age group followed by other age group. In this present study, 60.56% were collected pleural fluid followed by 38.73% Ascitic fluid &amp; 0.70% pericardial fluid.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study suggested that, cytological study of body fluids is an inexpensive and simple procedure. It is also useful in finding the etiology and in understanding the course of disease.</em></p> Pramod Solanki Sangeeta Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Pramod Solanki, Sangeeta Singh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PA1 PA3 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.07 Analysis of Endometrial Histopathology in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Prospective Hospital Based Study http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/532 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) can be defined as abnormal bleeding from the vagina that is due to changes in hormone levels. Such type of bleeding is not caused by pregnancy or miscarriage, medical conditions like cancer or fibroids. Problems with the uterus or vagina from infection or other causes can be classified as ovulatory or anovulatory, depending on whether ovulation is occurring or not.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was examined with 300 cases presenting abnormal uterine bleeding.</em></p> <p><em>The duration of study was over a period of 9 months. This study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Badaun, U.P</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study Endometrium pathology of abnormal uterine bleeding were obtained in 150 cases.In the present study 51 cases were seen with reproductive age,70 cases seen with Perimenopausal age &amp; 29 cases were seen with Postmenopausal age.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study suggested that, histopathologic study is mandatory in perimenopausal and postmenopausal bleeding cases. It helps to diagnose early atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma which have exceptional prognosis when detected early.</em></p> Surendra Kumar Dhruv Copyright (c) 2019 Surendra Kumar Dhruv http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-24 2019-12-24 5 4 PA4 PA6 10.21276/iabcr.2019.5.4.08