Association of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV And Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Indian Scenario
Background: About 80-90% of HNSCC are associated with known risk factor e.g. smoking, tobacco chewing & alcohol abuse. The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the etiology of HNSCC has emerged in last few years. Many studies have proved HPV in oropharyngeal cancer but there are very few studies regarding role of HPV in oral cavity which constitutes the 90% of HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to look for the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in India.
Method: This was a prospective observational study. 50 cases of suspected malignant ulcers of oral cavity were biopsied. Having confirmed the lesion as SCC, HPV 16 and 18 analysis was done on frozen samples by PCR. Results: The most common site of OSCC was oral tongue (50%). About 80% of the patients had some form of addiction. 36% of the patients had early stage disease whereas 64% had late stage disease with 76% cases of well differentiated SCC. Only 2 (4%) patients were found to be HPV positive. Conclusions: HPV is an important etiological agent in HNSCC in western patients but its role in OSCC has yet not been significant. In India, tobacco and alcohol are commonly identified etiological agents of HNSCC. The rarity of HPV might be due to the differences in the cultural and sexual behavior. Also, HPV vaccine is predicted to reduce the incidence of oral cancer due to HPV. However, further studies are required to label HPV as etiological factor for OSCC proper.
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