Distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group among blood donors at Hospital Blood Bank in Delhi- An initial step to evaluate preparedness to fight an epidemic
Distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group among blood donors
Introduction: The ABO and Rh blood group systems is most important of all blood groups systems in both blood transfusion and transplant medicine. Antigens present on the surface of RBC’s play an important role in understanding genetics, inheritance pattern, medicolegal issues, disease susceptibility and transfusion safety. It is important to study the distribution of blood group in different population for clinical studies, their relation with disease and environment. The effective management of blood bank and safe transfusion services can be achieved by understanding distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups, as its frequency varies time to time from one population to other.
The aim of present study is to determine the distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group among the donors at our hospital so as to assess the preparedness of our blood bank to combat ongoing epidemic and to correlate with other studies carried in different regions of India.
Material and methods: A retrospective study was carried out at our hospital blood bank. The study includes both voluntary and replacement donors. The donors were first screened according to criteria for blood donation. The blood samples were obtained by venepuncture method and Blood grouping ABO and Rhesus was done by antigen antibody micro-agglutination tube test. The data was collected in MS Excel spread sheet coded appropriately and analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 24.
Results: Total number of donors were 7822, among which 7681were males and 141 were females. The most common blood group was B (35.40%) and least common was AB (9.65 %) in both males and females. Incidence of ABO blood group showed B blood groups was commonest (35.40%), followed by blood group O (30.96%), blood group A (23.98%) and the least was blood group AB (9.65%). In Rh grouping, 95.63% donors were Rh positive and 4.37% were Rh negative. The maximum donors belonged to 18 -30 years of age group.
Conclusion: This study helps us to know the exact distribution of blood group in our community, which will ultimately help us to plan accordingly in case of any epidemic or disaster. This study also benefits, by collecting data from different regions of India to prepare for future health challenges and smooth functioning of transfusion services and availability of respective blood groups round the clock and to meet the increase demands, thus preventing mortality associated with non-availability of blood at the time of emergency.
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