Breakfast and Academic Performance among College and University Students: Review of the Available Literature

  • quratulain javaid BUMDC
Keywords: Breakfast, students, academic performance, college, university

Abstract

Breakfast and Academic Performance among College and University Students: Review of the Available Literature

  ABSTRACT:  

Breakfast is one of the three essential meals consumed in a day. The nutrition provided by the breakfast is considered as a building block in maintenance of the functional activity of the body and henceforth is linked to the quality of life of an individual. The nutrients in the breakfast are sources of energy supply and maintains alertness, concentration and cognition. Among the students, regular intake of breakfast is associated with increased level of subject comprehension, regular attendance and increase ability to solve complicated tasks. Breakfast skipping is associated with lack of energy, disturbances in cognitive functions, mood changes, problems to retain memory and low academic scores. With higher level of education, workload rises and the demand of nutrition increases. The college and university level students are required to include healthy diet plan and should start their day with healthy breakfast. The aim of this review article is to ascertain the importance of habitual breakfast intake and its linkage to the academic performance of the college and university students. Research articles were analysed by the help of three databases; Google Scholar, PUBMED and APA database from 2005 to 2020. There is relationship of breakfast intake and educational performance of the individuals. Those who are habitual breakfast consumers have better academic achievement as compared to those who skip breakfast.

 

KEYWORDS:

Breakfast, students, academic performance, college, university

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Taha Z, Rashed AS. The effect of breakfast on academic performance among high school students in Abu Dhabi. AJNE 2017;16:40-9.
2. Unal G, Uzdil Z, Kokdener M, Ozenoglu A. Breakfast habits and diet quality among university students and its effect on anthropometric measurements and academic success. Prog. Nutr 2017;1(19):154-62.
3. Haldar P, Nayak BS, Satish Y. Factors of skipping breakfast and association between skipping breakfast and academic achievement of nursing students. Indian J. Public Health Dev 2018;9(6):118-24.
4. O’Neil, C. E., Byrd-Bredbenner, C., Hayes, D., Jana, L., Klinger, S. E., & Stephenson-Martin, S. The role of breakfast in health: Definition and criteria for a quality breakfast. JAND 2014;114(12):8-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.08.022
5. Wijtzes AI, Jansen W, Jaddoe VW, Franco OH, Hofman A, van Lenthe FJ, Raat H. Social inequalities in young Children’s meal skipping behaviors: the generation R study. PloS one. 2015;10(7) e0134487. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134487
6. Gaal S, Kerr MA, Ward M, McNulty H, Livingstone MB. Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. Nutrients 2018;10:999-1019 doi:10.3390/nu10080999www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
7. Ackuaku-Dogbe EM, Abaidoo B. Breakfast eating habits among medical students. Ghana Med J 2014;48(2):66-70.
8. Affinita, A., Catalani, L., Cecchetto, G. et al. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach. Ital J Pediatr 2013;39:44. https://doi.org/10.1186/1824-7288-39-44
9. Jeyakumar A, Ghugre P. Is lack of breakfast contributing to nutrient deficits and poor nutritional indicators among adolescent girls?. Nutrition and health 2017;23(3):177-84.
10. Williams P. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: Systematic Review of the Evidence Base. Advances in Nutrition 2014;5(5):636-75 https://doi.org/10.3945/an.114.006247
11. Benton D, Maconie A, Williams C. The influence of the glycaemic load of breakfast on the behaviour of children in school. Physiology & behavior 2007;92(4):717-24.
12. Wakabayashi KT, Myal SE, Kiyatkin E A. Fluctuations in nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and glucose during motivated glucose-drinking behavior: Dissecting the neurochemistry of reward. J. Neurochem 2015;132(3):327–341. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.12993
13. Basch CE. Breakfast and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. JOSH 2011;81(10):635-40.
14. Fatima M, Waqas M, Tariq U, Sarwar R, Ahmad S, Faizan M. Effect of breakfast on academic performance of medical students. RMJ 2019;44(3):618-21.
15. Adolphus K, Lawton CL, Dye L. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents. FRONT HUM NEUROSCI 2013;8;7:425.
16. Edwards JU, Mauch L, Winkelman MR. Relationship of nutrition and physical activity behaviors and fitness measures to academic performance for sixth graders in a midwest city school district. JOSH 2011;81(2):65–73. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00562.x
17. Boschloo A, Ouwehand C, Dekker S, Lee N, de Groot R, Krabbendam L, Jolles J. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education 2012;6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228X.2012.01138.x
18. Kukulu K, Sarvan S, Muslu L, Yirmibesoglu SG. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study. J. Child Health Care 2010;14(4), 355-366. doi:10.1177/1367493510380079
19. Gajre NS, Fernandez S, Balakrishna N, Vazir S. Breakfast eating habit and its influence on attention-concentration, immediate memory and school achievement. Indian Pediatr 2008; 45(10), 824–828.
20. Alrayes A, Alowayshiq H, Altamimi H, Alangari R, Benajiba N. Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents. Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res 2018:2(4):75-80
21. Wells E, Avery M, Catanzarito B, Wilson B, Bunn J. Assessment of breakfast and physical activity habits in college students at a rural private institution. JPES 2016;16(3):770-75
22. So, W. Y. Association between frequency of breakfast consumption and academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. Iran J Public Health 2013;42(1):25-32.
23. Miller DP, Waldfogel J, Han WJ. Family meals and child academic and behavioral outcomes. Child Dev 2012;83(6):2104–20. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01825.
24. Hou Y, Mei G, Liu Y, Xu W. Physical Fitness with Regular Lifestyle Is Positively Related to Academic Performance among Chinese Medical and Dental Students. BioMed Research International 2020;1-10.
25. Garg M, Rajesh V, Kumar P: Effect of breakfast skipping on Nutritional Status and School Performance of 10-16 years old children of Udupi District. Health Popul Perspect Issues 2014;37:98-117.
26. Thivel D, Isacco L, Aucouturier J, Pereira B, Lazaar N, Ratel S, Doré E, Duché P. Bedtime and sleep timing but not sleep duration are associated with eating habits in primary school children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2015;1;36(3):158-65.
27. Phillips GW. Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?. Bioscene: Journal of College Biology Teaching 2005;30(4):15-9.
28. Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet 2005;105(5):743-60.
29. Veasey RC, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Kennedy DO, Tiplady B, Stevenson EJ. The effect of breakfast prior to morning exercise on cognitive performance, mood and appetite later in the day in habitually active women. Nutrients 2015;7(7):5712-32.
30. Ludin AF, Lim SL. Factors affecting breakfast consumption and its association with academic performance among undergraduates. Jurnal Intelek. 2016;10(2):1-6.
31. Yao J, Liu Y, Zhou S. Effect of Eating Breakfast on Cognitive Development of Elementary and Middle School Students: An Empirical Study Using Large-Scale Provincial Survey Data. Med Sci Mon Int Med J Exp Clin Res 2019;25:8843-53.
32. Iovino I, Stuff J, Liu Y, Brewton C, Dovi A, Kleinman R, Nicklas T. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: a repeated-measures clinical trial. The AJCN 2016;104(3):715-21.
33. Lien, L. Is breakfast consumption related to mental distress and academic performance in adolescents? PHN 2007;10(4):422–428. doi:10.1017/s1368980007258550
34. Ferrer-Cascales R, Sánchez-SanSegundo M, Ruiz-Robledillo N, Albaladejo-Blázquez N, Laguna-Pérez A, Zaragoza-Martí A. Eat or skip breakfast? The important role of breakfast quality for health-related quality of life, stress and depression in Spanish adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res 2018;15(8):1781.
35. Rehman R, Zafar A, Mohib A, Hussain M, Ali R. Self-reported academic performance in relation to health behaviours among Bahria University students. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2018;68(2):195-99.
36. Mirghani HO, Albalawi KS, Alali OY, Albalawi WM, Albalawi KM, Aljohani TR, Albalawi WS. Breakfast skipping, late dinner intake and chronotype (eveningness-morningness) among medical students in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. PAMJ 2019;5;34(178). doi:10.11604/pamj.05/12/2019 .34.178.16250
37. Javaid A, Munir I. Breakfast Skipping and its Effects on Emotional and Academic Behaviour of a Group of Saudi Medical Students. J Nutr Food Sci. 2018;8(6):1-4.
38. Arshad N, Ahmed U. Impact of breakfast habits on education performance of university students (A study conducted on University of Sargodha, Pakistan). IJARPED. 2014;3:255-70.
39. González-Garrido AA, Brofman-Epelbaum JJ, Gómez-Velázquez FR, Balart-Sánchez SA, Ramos-Loyo J. Skipping Breakfast Affects the Early Steps of Cognitive Processing. Int. J. Psychophysiol 2018;33:109-18
40. Sofar SM, Hafeez NA, Relations between Skipping Breakfast, Academic Performance and Body Mass Index among Undergraduate University Nursing Students. JNHS. 2019;8(4):32-42.
41. Devi SS, Devi R, Bankimchandra S. An exploratory study to assess the effect of breakfast skipping on college performance among B.Sc. nursing students in MM College of nursing, Mullana, Ambala. IJAR 2017;3(3):904-6.
42. Thivel D, Isacco L, Aucouturier J, Pereira B, Lazaar N, Ratel S, Doré E, Duché P. Bedtime and sleep timing but not sleep duration are associated with eating habits in primary school children. JDBP 2015;1;36(3):158-65.
43. Levin KA, Kirby J. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: Underlying causes by family structure. Appetite 2012;1;59(1):63-70.
44. Chawla R, Emy MK, Singh MH, bin Abd Razak MA. Role Of Breakfast, BMI And English Language Proficiency On Academic Performance Of Undergraduate Dental Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. BJMHS 2019;1(3):56-68.
45. Khurshid R, Mahmood M, Chaudhry F, Paracha HM, Maham M, Haq FH. Factors associated with skipping breakfast among Day scholars and Boarding Adolescent and their effects on their academic performance. PJMHS 2018;12(4):1706-10.
Published
2020-06-29
How to Cite
1.
javaid quratulain. Breakfast and Academic Performance among College and University Students: Review of the Available Literature. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res [Internet]. 2020Jun.29 [cited 2020Jul.11];6(2):HA1-HA6. Available from: http://iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/565