A Longitudinal Study on Visual Problems of Medical Students using Smart Phones in Haldia, India
Background: Blue light is essential for good health. Ocular complaints of users of electronic screens are collectively known as “Computer Vision Syndrome”. There are very few longitudinal studies about effect of HEV light on medical students in the Indian setting.
Methods: A longitudinal study with three visits at initial day, three and six months was designed to record the ocular health of medical students. IOP, TBUT and eye dryness were measured with standard tools. Mean differences in values at the end of three visits were calculated and analysed. Numbers having astigmatism were compared using Cochran’s Q test.
Results: Number of students having astigmatism at the end of the study was statistically significant when compared to baseline. No significant change in cylindrical power. IOP, TBUT and Schirmer Test values all showed highly significant changes over three visits.
Conclusions: There was significant visual deterioration among the study population over the course of the study, which points to the urgency of adopting precautionary measures while using devices like smart phones, which emanate blue light.
2. Internet: https://monographs.iarc.fr/agents-classified-by-the-iarc/.Available from www.iarc.fr.Last Accessed November 20, 2019.
3.Bali J, Navin N, Thakur BR. Computer vision syndrome: A study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:289–94. [PubMed: 17595478]
4.American Optometric Association (AOA). The effects of computer use on eye health and vision. 1995.[Last accessed on December 7,2019]. Available from:http://www.aoa.org/patientsandpublic/caringforyourvision/protectingyourvision/computervisionsyndrome
5. Yan Z, Hu L, Chen H, Lu F. Computer vision syndrome: A widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among computer users. Comput Human Behav. 2008;24:2026–42.
6. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, Mitra S, Yee RW. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50:253–62. [PubMed: 15850814]
7.Sun J, Zhou J, Zhao P, Lian J, Zhu H, Zhou Y, Sun Y, Wang Y, Zhao L, Wei Y, Wang L, Cun B, Ge S, Fan X. High prevalence of myopia and high myopia in 5060 Chinese university students in shanghai. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(12):7504. 2012:53 (12) :7504–7505.
8.Onal S, Toker E, Akingol Z, et al. Refractive errors of medical students in Turkey: one year follow-up of refraction and biometry. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:175–80.doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e3180335c52
9. Fledelius HC. Myopia profile in Copenhagen medical students 1996–98. Refractive stability over a century is suggested. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2000;78:501–5.
10. Midelfart A, Aamo B, Sjohaug KA, Dysthe BE. Myopia among medical students in Norway. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1992;70:317–22.
11. Chow YC, Dhillon B, Chew PT, Chew SJ. Refractive errors in Singapore medical students. Singapore Med J 1990;31:472–3.
12. Woo WW, Lim KA, Yang H, Lim XY, Liew F, Lee YS, Saw SM. Refractive errors in medical students in Singapore. Singapore Med J 2004;45:470–4.
13. Megbelayin EO, Asana UE, Nkanga DG, Duke, Roseline EA, Ibanga A, et al. Refractive Errors and Spectacle Use Behavior among Medical Students in a Nigerian Medical School. Br J Med Med Res.2014;4:2581-9. https://doi. org/10.9734/BJMMR/2014/7518
14. Kinge B, Midelfart A, Jacobsen G. Refractive errors among young adults and university students in Norway. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998;76:692-5. https://doi.org/10.1034/ j.1600-0420.1998.760612.x
15. Mandalos AT, Peios DK, Mavracanas A, Golias VA, Megalou KG, Delidou KA, et al. Prevalence of astigmatism among students in northern Greece. Eu J Ophthalmol 2002;12:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1177/112067210201200101
16.Impact of Gazing at Video Display Terminals on Eye Health of Teenagers. Guangxi Med J 2006, 28 (4):522–523
17.Wang L, Cun B, Ge S, Fan X. High prevalence of myopia and high myopia in 5060 Chinese university students in shanghai. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53(12):7504. 2012:53 (12) :7504–7505.
18.Garza-León M, Valencia-Garza M, Martínez-Leal B, Villarreal-Peña P, Marcos-Abdala HG, Cortéz-Guajardo AL, Jasso-Banda A. Prevalence of ocular surface disease symptoms and risk factors in group of university students in Monterrey, Mexico. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2016;6(1):44. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
19.Lin LKL, Shif YF, Lee YC, Hung PT, Hou PK. Changes in ocular refraction and its components among medical students. A 5-year
longitudinal study. Optom Vis Sci 1996; 73: 495-8.
20.Kinge B, Midelfart A, Jacobsen G, Rystad J. The influence of near-work on development of myopia among university students. A three-year longitudinal study among engineering students in Norway. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000; 78(1):26-9.
21.Asiedu K, Kyei S, Boampong F, Ocansey S. Symptomatic Dry Eye and Its Associated Factors: A Study of University Undergraduate Students in Ghana. Eye contact Lens. Jul. 2017;43(4):262–6.
22. Shrivastava SR, Bobhate PS. Computer related health problems among software professionals in Mumbai: A cross-sectional study. Int J Health Sci. 2012;1:74–8.
23. Talwar R, Kapoor R, Puri K, Bansal K, Singh S. A Study of Visual and Musculoskeletal Health Disorders among Computer Professionals in NCR Delhi. Indian J Community Med. 2009;34:326–8.
24. Kesavachandran C, Rastogi SK, Das M, Khan AM. Working conditions and health among employees in information technology – Enabled services: A review of current evidence. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:300–7.
25. Rajeev A, Gupta A, Sharma M. Visual fatigue and computer use among college students. Indian JCommunity Med. 2006;31:192–3. 26. Sharma AK, Khera S, Khandekar J. Computer related health problems among information technologyprofessionals in Delhi. Indian J community Med. 2006;31:36–8.
27. Logaraj M, Madhupriya V, Hegde S. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in Chennai. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 2014;4(2):179.
28.Kim DJ, Lim CY, Gu N, Park CY. Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31(5):388–393. doi:10.3341/kjo.2016.0095
29.Ip JM, Saw SM, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Kifley A, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. Role of near work in myopia: findings in a sample of Australian school children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(7):2903–10.
30..Galinsky TL, Swanson NG, Sauter SL, Hurrell JJ, Schleifer LM. A field study of supplementary restbreaks for dataentryoperators. Ergonomics. 2000;43:622–38.
31. Van den Heuvel SG, de Looze MP, Hildebrandt VH, Thé KH. Effects of software programs stimulating regular breaks and exercises on work related neck and upperlimb disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health.2003;29:106–16.
32. Devesh S, AlBimani N. Healthy tips associated to computer use. Int J Ergon (IJEG) 2012;2:12–23.
33. Brewer S, Van Eerd D, Amick BC, 3rd, Irvin E, Daum KM, Gerr F, et al. Workplace interventions to prevent musculoskeletal and visual symptoms and disorders among computer users: A systematic review. J Occup Rehabil. 2006;16:325–58. [PubMed: 16933148]
34. Levy B, Wagner G, Rest K, Weeks J. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Health Association; 2005. Preventing Occupational Disease and Injury.
35. Internet: flux app for Windows, Android and iPhone.Available from: www.justgetflux.com. Last accessed: Jan 15, 2020
Copyright (c) 2020 Debabrata Datta, Abhishek De
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.