Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Prospective Study
October - December 2017 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 | Page : 13-16
1 Associate Prof., Department of General Medicine, S.R. Medical College
and Research Centre Akhathumuri P. O Vennicode, VARKALA, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala
How to cite this article: Leelakumari P. Prevalence of Cardiovascular
Disease Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Prospective Study.
Int Arch BioMed Clin Res. 2017;3(4):13-16.
Background: Cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis is
rare in premenopausal women; the incidence steeply increases after menopause. Unresolved
issue remains if these changes are caused rather by chronological aging or by menopause
accompanied by decrease in the estrogen concentration. Methods:
This study was conducted during the period of 2 year in one of the rural health
centre in Sothern India. This is observational, cross-sectional prospective study.
a total of 400 consecutive postmenopausal women (cessation of menstruation for 1
year) were recruited. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.25
years, mean number of menopausal symptoms was 8.97 ± 3.68, and mean duration since
menopause was (MDSM = 3.10 years). Fatigue, lack of energy (80%), cold hand and
feet, rheumatology-related symptoms (70%) cold sweats, weight gain, irritability
and nervousness (60%), palpitation of heart, excitable/anxiety (40%) each were common
complaints. Hypertension was diagnosed or a person was a known hypertensive (72%).
Diabetes was diagnosed, or a person was known diabetic in 37%. BMI 25 kg/m2 in 65%.
Truncal obesity with WHR > 0.8 in 59% females, whereas abdominal obesity with waist
size >88 cm was in 54% women. Conclusions: In postmenopausal women
from rural areas high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes,
hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and other risk factors.
Keywords: Menopause, postmenopausal, hypertension, cardiovascular Disease
- World Health Organization (WHO). Research on the menopause in the 1990: report of
a WHO Scienti?c Group. WHO tech rep ser.; 1990. p. 12–20.
- Meirelles RM. Menopausa e síndrome metabólica. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;58:2.
- Paolillo FR, Milan JC, Paolillo AR, Lopes SLB, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS, et al. Impact
of fat distribution on metabolic, cardiovascular and symptomatic aspects in postmenopausal
women. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2014;34:32–9.
- K.A. Matthews, C.J. Gibson, S.R. El Khoudary, R.C. Thurston, Changes in cardiovascular
risk factors by hysterectomy status with and without oophorectomy: Study of Women's
Health Across the Nation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology 62 (2013)
- K.A. Matthews, E. Meilahn, L.H. Kuller, et al., Menopause and risk factors for coronary
heart disease, New England Journal of Medicine 321 (1989) 641–646.
- P. Collins, G. Rosano, C. Casey, et al., Management of cardiovascular risk in the
peri-menopausal woman: a consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynaecologists,
European Heart Journal 28 (2007) 2028–2040.
- R.A. Wild, Atherosclerotic burden during the menopausal transition is a wakeup call,Menopause
19 (2012) 1–2.
- L. Mosca, E.J. Benjamin, K. Berra, et al., Effectiveness-based guidelines for the
prevention of cardiovascular disease in women – 2011 update: a guideline from the
American Heart Association, Journal of American College of Cardiology 57 (2011)
- L. Mosca, E. Barrett-Connor, N.K. Wenger, Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular
disease prevention: what a difference a decade makes, Circulation 124 (2011) 2145–
- Mukherjee AK. India’s health – Today and tomorrow. J Indian Med Assoc 1995;93:312-5.
- Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries.
- Bulatao RA, Stephens PW. Demographic estimates and projections, by region, 1970-2015.
In: Jamison DT, Mosley WH, editors. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries.
(Health Sector Priorities Review No. 13). Washington: World Bank; 1990.
- World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO;
- Burden of Disease in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government
of India. Background Papers for the National Commission on Macroeconomics; 2005.
- Goenka S, Prabhakaran D, Ajay VS, Reddy KS. Preventing cardiovascular disease in
India – Translating evidence to action. Curr Sci 2009;97:367-77.
- Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Chaturvedi V, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Ramakrishnan L,
et al. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases
in Indian industrial populations. Bull World Health Organ 2006;84:461-9.
- Norman G, George C, Krishnamurthy A, Mukherjee D. Burden of cardiovascular risk
factors of a rural population in South India using the WHO multivariable risk prediction
algorithm. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2014;3:764-8.
- Collins P, Rosano G, Casey C, Daly C, Gambacciani M, Hadji P, et al. Management
of cardiovascular risk in the perimenopausal women: A consensus statement of European
cardiologists and gynecologists. Climacteric 2007;10:508-26.
- Kasliwal RR, Kulshreshtha A, Agrawal S, Bansal M, Trehan N. Prevalence of cardiovascular
risk factors in Indian patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Assoc
Physicians India 2006;54:371-5.
- Gupta R, Sarna M, Thanvi J, Rastogi P, Kaul V, Gupta VP. High prevalence of multiple
coronary risk factors in Punjabi Bhatia community: Jaipur Heart Watch-3. Indian
Heart J 2004;56:646-52.
- Gupta R, Gupta VP, Sarna M, Bhatnagar S, Thanvi J, Sharma V, et al. Prevalence of
coronary heart disease and risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart
Watch-2. Indian Heart J 2002;54:59-66.
- De Lorenzi DRS, Danelon C, Saciloto B, Padilha Jr I. Fatores indicadores da sintomatologia
climatérica? Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2005;27:12–9.
- Chedraui P, Aguirre W, Hidalgo L, Fayad L. Assessing menopausal symptoms among healthy
middle aged women with the Menopause Rating Scale. Maturitas. 2007;57:271–8.
- Fernandez-Alonso AM, Cuadros JL, Chedraui P, Mendoza M, Cuadros ÁM, Pérez-López
FR. Obesity is related to increased menopausal symptoms among Spanish women. Menopause
- Da Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Azevedo RS, De Barros Couto Júnior E, Júnior
JMS, et al. Impact of age and body mass on the intensity of menopausal symptoms
in 5968 Brazilian women? Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:116–8