IABCR Journal Header

Article Viewer


Article QR Code


Abnormal Papanicolaou Test: Results and Risk Factors Among Women of Uttarakhand
Download PDF     Print

October - December 2017 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 | Page : 1-4

Manju Lal1, Rupali Sharma2*, Priyanka Goyal3, Saba Shamim4

1Associate Professor, 3Senior Resident, 4MS Scholar, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. 2Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, G.S. Medical College & Hospital, Pilkhuwa, District-Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

How to cite this article: : Lal M, Sharma R, Goyal P, Shamim S. Abnormal Papanicolaou Test: Results and Risk Factors Among Women of Uttarakhand. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res. 2017;3(4):1-4.


Background: Cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. About 493 million new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed each year. About 274 thousand women die from this disease annually and 83% of these cases are in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology among women attending Gynaecology OPD and to assess the presence of associated risk factors. Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire involving women attending Gynaecology OPD of HIMS, Dehradun from January to December 2016. All pap smears cytological examination was conducted using Bethesda system of classification. Results: 248 (11.6%) women had abnormal cytological findings with a mean age of 36.84 years. Duration of marriage was found be significantly longer among those with abnormal Pap smear (18.34 years verses 15.72 years (p<0.05). Conclusions: Early marriage, increasing parity and longer duration of marriage are strongly associated with abnormal Pap smear results.

Keywords: Abnormal PAP smear, Cervical cancer, Premalignant

  1. Mehmetoglu HC et al. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey. North Am J Med Sci. 2010;2: 467.
  2. Khorasanizadeh F et al. (2013). Epidemiology of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus infection among Iranian women-Analyses of national data and systematic review of the literature. Gynecologic Oncol.2013; 128: 277-8.
  3. Ncube B et al. Factors associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in Portland, Jamaica. N Am J Med Sci. 2015;7: 104-13.
  4. Aggarwal P. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented? World J ClinOncol. 2014;5: 775-80.
  5. McGraw SL, Ferrante JM. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer. World J Clin Oncol. 2014; 5: 744-52.
  6. Ferlay Jet al. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: Sources, Methods and Major Patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International Journal of Cancer. 2015;136: 359-86.
  7. Goodman, A. HPV Testing as a Screen for Cervical Cancer. British Medical Journal. 2015;350: 2372.
  8. Rodriguez ACet al. Longitudinal Study of Human Papilloma Virus Persistence and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3: Critical Role of Duration of Infection. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 2010;102: 315-24.
  9. Edelstein Z Ret al. Age of Diagnosis of Squamous Cell Cervical Carcinoma and Early Sexual Experience. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2010;18: 1070-6.
  10. Kjaer S et al. Different Risk Factor Patterns for High-Grade and Low-Grade Intraepithelial Lesions on the Cervix among HPV-Positive and HPV Negative Young Women. International Journal of Cancer. 1998;76: 613-19.
  11. Arbyn M et al. Pooled analysis of the accuracy of five cervical cancer screening tests assessed in eleven studies in Africa and India. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(1):153-60.
  12. Rosai J. Rosai and Ackermani surgical pathology. 9th ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby;2004.
  13. Scott JR, Gibbs RS, Karlan BY, Haney AF. Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. 9th ed. Philadilphia; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: 2003.
  14. Patro BK, Nongkynrih B. Review of screening and preventive strategies for cervical cancer in India. Indian J Public Health. 2007;51:216-21.
  15. Solomon Det al. The 2001 Bethesda System: Terminology for Reporting Results of Cervical Cytology. Journal of American Medical Association. 2002;287: 2114-9.
  16. Beral V, Hermon C, Munoz N, Devesa S. Cervical cancer. Cancer Surveys. 1994; 19/20: 265-85.
  17. Varghese C et al. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1999; 77: 3.
  18. Chichareon S et al. Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer in Thailand: a Case–Control Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:50–7.
  19. Saslow D et al. American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002;52: 342-62.
  20. Winkelstein W. Smoking and cervical cancer: current status - a review. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131:945-57.
  21. Castellsague X, Muñoz N. Cofactors in human papillomavirus carcinogenesis-role of parity, oral contraceptives, and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer InstMonogr.2003; 31: 20-8.
  22. Tay SK, Tay KJ. Passive cigarette smoking is a risk factor in cervical neoplasia. Gynecol On-col. 2004;93: 116–20.
  23. Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:53-78.

Published by Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan
Index Copernicus